32 the pseudo democrats dilemma to democratization even when they hold elections as electoral autocrats such as alberto fujimori vladimir putin and robert mugabe illustrate this distinction between types of leaders means that given some level of international benefi ts tied to democracy and uncertainty about some. 58 the pseudo democrats dilemma government rhetoric about the decision to invite observers and cross national data from 1960 to 2006 documenting when and where election monitoring diffused the evidence in this chapter evaluates and lends sup port to the fi rst seven empirical implications outlined in chapter 1 all of. 162 the pseudo democrats dilemma international observers but in the long run it caused the same types of leaders to face a diffi cult choice between consequences for refusing observ ers and the risk of a negative report from them neither of these options is desirable for pseudo democrats who can no longer simply refuse interna. 186 the pseudo democrats dilemma of observers to justify the imposition of costs on the government in some cases similar scenarios following fraudulent elections have resulted in massive domestic uprisings and the eventual removal of the incum bent government in other cases the parallel vote tabulations organized. 128 the pseudo democrats dilemma o from 1960 to 1989 observers were present at only 10 of elections in which there were signifi cant concerns before the election that it would not be free and fair after 1989 this number increases to 69 and to 75 when single party elections are excluded
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