Timeline of all ES Presidents


Gobernantes de (1931 - 2014)

General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez
President of El Salvador:
He ruled as Vice President:
December 4, 1931 to August 28, 1934
As President of the Republic:
March 1, 1935 to March 1, 1939
March 1, 1939 to May 9, 1944

General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez was born in San Matias, department of Liberty on October 21, 1882 and was killed in Jamastrán, Honduras, May 15, 1966.
His parents were Don Raymundo Martinez Hernandez and Dona Petronilla, married Donna Monteagudo conception.
They were his sons, Alberto, Carmen, Hope, Marina, Eduardo Rosa, Gloria and Maximilian.

He studied at San Salvador and after having obtained the Bachelor of Arts degree, with the help of his uncle, Mr. Guadalupe Martinez, admission to the Polytechnic School of Guatemala, where he earned a brilliant way the degree of Sub Lieutenant and returned to El Salvador when he was President of the Republic, General Tomas Regalado, on his return from the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences at the University, but not end the career, to devote himself to the weapons which conquered the following promotions :
Lieutenant effective, November 17, 1903, Captain, August 23, 1906, Captain Major, in the same year of 1906 (war with Guatemala, where he fought General Martinez under the command of General Tomas Regalado) Lieutenant Colonel May 6, 1909; Colonel on June 15, 1914 and General of Brigade, June 27, 1919.

General Martinez served many important positions within the Army and 1st March 1931, the Labor Party raised him as Vice President of the Republic in elections held in the same year.

General Maximiliano Hernandez was awarded: Order of the Quetzal;
Decoration: Order of Kuang Lung and the Chuku.
Was nominated Benefactor of the Fatherland
On December 2, 1931, the President of the Republic, Arturo Araujo, was deposed by a coup and the Director Military Supreme Command had assumed, gave the First Judiciary Vice President and Minister of War, Navy and Aviation, General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez.

Pro Patria was the name of the Official Party created by General Hernandez Martinez to support its policy of strong hand of dictatorship. Because that was a tyrant ruler ironclad, which admitted no opposition whatsoever.
But did good things, organized the banking system (created in 1934 and 1939 the Central Banks and Mortgage) credit institutions created for the farmer (Federation of Rural Credit Banks), began construction of cheap housing for workers, put in order the national treasury, pushed economic policies that gave relief to the producers (Salvadoran Coffee Company), sugar cane and cotton. Construction begins on the Panamerican Highway (June 30, 1932) about 300 kilometers running across the country. Also grants a moratorium on small and medium landowners were not seized by banks.

Martinez seldom shrinks from the claims of enemies and collaborators, however reasonable they may be. Their behavior is costing El Salvador several political murders and two bloodbaths, the peasant uprising of 1932 (led by Agustin Farabundo Marti which honors his name and philosophy, the FMLN) and the military uprising on April 4, 1944.

1935 years of elections and Martinez has in mind to leave the presidency. The wily president arranged ahead of the sham elections that ultimately gave the presidency that year.
The overthrow of Araujo retired six months before the Presidency (late 1934) and was "simply" as Minister of War, puts the Presidency in the General Andrés Ignacio Menéndez. Martínez has no competition in the 1935 elections, the only existing party was theirs, Pro-Patria. On 1 March of that year he received the investiture of the newly inaugurated president of the National Stadium Flor Blanca, Duara this period until 1944.

On April 2, 1944 (Sunday) at 3:00 pm, a rattle of machine gun breaks calm in San Salvador, while three Air Force planes fly low over the headquarters of Police and National Guard. The rebels were commanded by military Marroquín and Tito Adolfo Calvo, taking the barracks of Infantry, Sixth Machine Gun Regiment, Ilopango Air Base and the Fifth Infantry in Santa Ana Martinez travels with his motorcycle in a van hire from the Liberty El Zapote (next to former Presidential Palace, San Jacinto).

The skirmishes lasted two days in which, little by little the rebels are losing ground. The rebel troops from Santa Ana, but realizing the imminence of defeat, they decide to return. Midway in San Andres Martinist an ambush awaits them, that kills the insurgents. On April 4 the uprising ended with the surrender of their headquarters and Marroquin's arrest Calvo (who called last minute for asylum in the U.S. Embassy and was denied). After control of the revolt, Martinez shot the trials by military rebels and sent to the firing squad arranged as opponent finds.

On May 2 in the morning, three civilians rebels roam the capital in search of drivers of the railways to stop trains out of San Salvador. Of the three only one out, this is the beginning of the sit-ins, all of national life together. National and international pressure is large, then why the May 9, 1944, at nine o'clock at night, in a statement radial Martinez announces that it has placed the president in his first appointed General Andres Ignacio Menendez. Ending his term with the following statements: "I do not believe in history, that history is written by passionate men. And my conscience tells me that I have done my duty." A peaceful strike Arms does what it can not: to overthrow the dictator.

During the 13 years Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez in power so there is no single sign of democracy in the country, while the father is the country's welfare is more ruthless executioner. He died on May 15, 1966 murdered in Jamastrán, Honduras.

General Andres Ignacio Menendez
Interim President of the Republic of El Salvador:
August 28, 1934 to March 21, 1935
Interim President:
May 9, 1944 to October 21, 1944

General Andrés Ignacio Menéndez was born in Santa Ana on February 1, 1879 and died on June 7, 1962.
Brother: Don Rafael Menendez.
He was remarried to Catalina Carvallo Menendez.
General Ignacio Menendez was an honest man and loyal. His promotions were from rows where he reached the rank of Sub Lieutenant on October 18, 1898, to lieutenant on March 24, 1904, to Captain August 1, 1906 by Captain organization amounted to Major on May 24, 1907, to lieutenant colonel on February 20, 1911, to Colonel on May 21, 1915 and to Brigadier General on August 10, 1920.
When General Martinez requested permission in 1934 to the Legislative National Assembly to prepare his reelection as President let provisionario General Andres Ignacio Menendez was appointed to the Cabinet as Minister of War, Marine, Aviation and Chairman Martinez.

Colonel Osmin Aguirre y Salinas
Military Member of the Board was:
2 to December 4, 1931
He was Provisional President of El Salvador:
October 21, 1944 to 1st March 1945

Colonel Osmin Aguirre y Salinas was born in San Miguel, December 24, 1889 and died while being taken to military hospital, shot dead on July 12, 1977 outside his home, located at 15 Calle Oriente No 117 of this capital. Died at 82 years old. He was home with widow Rosa Aguirre Cardona. Fathered 4 children, one of his sons Elmer Aguirre, Military Civic Action works. another son, dr. Ahmed died in an accident. Salvadoran military was a board member who was civic 2 to December 4, 1931 and Provisional President of El Salvador from October 21, 1944 until March 1, 1945.

On December 2, 1931, being as president Arturo Araujo was overthrown by a military board. In this ephemeral Military Directorate took part in the War Ministry Colonel Osmin Aguirre y Salinas, the directory to give the supreme command of then Vice-President Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez.

General Salvador Castaneda Castro
He ruled as President of the Republic:
March 1, 1945 to December 14, 1948

General Salvador Castaneda Castro was born in Chalchuapa, on August 6, 1888 and died in San Salvador on March 5, 1965.
His wife, Josefina Castro Castaneda Bulnes
His daughters, Aracely Gutierrez Castaneda, Marta de Araujo, Concepcion Garcia Castaneda Castaneda Bulnes Prieto and Elena.

Among his most important positions that play to play: Director of the Military Academy, Minister of the Interior (formerly of governance), and commander and governor of several departments.

General Salvador Castaneda was a man of great culture and an innate sympathy.

Elected president in February 1945 after only stand as a candidate during his campaign received the backing of the armed forces and landlords coffee. His government continued its repressive policies of the opposition groups, in imitation of General Hernandez Martinez, restored the validity of the 1886 Constitution with some amendments and initiated the construction of the hydroelectric dam "November 5th" on the Lempa River.

Was presented to the president for the short-lived Social Democratic Unification Party, virtually unique as a candidate, his contenders withdrew from the race when the campaign was already underway. Other candidates were Dr. Arturo Romero, opposition leader since the days of Hernandez Martinez, great popular by the Democratic Union Party, Colonel Antonio Lucero Claramount through Fraternal Progressive Party, Jose Cipriano Castro, by the Popular Party Progressive and journalist Napoleon Altamirano, founder of El Diario de Hoy, one of the biggest newspapers in El Salvador.

Castaneda took office on 1 March 1945, for a period of six years, as required by the Constitution. However, in 1948 the Legislature cut the presidential term to five years, and issued a decree to leave the government Castañeda a year later, his term cut to just four years. Castaneda, who reportedly was seeking reelection, claimed that the decree could not be retroactive, and announced its intention to extend its mandate until the current constitutional limit when he took office. He was overthrown by a group of young soldiers, the December 14, 1948, and replaced by a Revolutionary Council of Government who would be led by his successor, Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio. After the coup, lived in exile in Guatemala, and returned to San Salvador shortly before his death

De facto governor
December 14, 1948 to September 14, 1950

The Revolutionary Council of Government (Council of the Revolutionary Government) ruled El Salvador since December 15, 1948 (after the overthrow of Salvador Castaneda Castro) until September 14, 1950, when the government gave to Major Oscar Osorio.

The members of the Revolutionary Council of Government were:

Dr. Reynaldo Galindo Pohl
Mayor Adam Oscar Bolaños
Dr. Humberto Costa
Major Oscar Osorio
Col. Manuel de Jesús T. Córdova

Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio
September 14, 1950 a September 14, 1956

Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio was born in the city of Sonsonate, December 14, 1910 and died on March 6, 1969, at Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas, United States, as a result of a kidney failure complicated with pneumonia .
His parents were: Mr. and Mrs. jesus Dolores Hernandez Osorio Osorio
His sister Margoth Osorio.

He was married twice: first with Leticia Rosales, with whom he had three children: Ana Maya, and Rhino Oscar. His second wife Dona Esperanza Llerena and had two children: Humberto and Cecilia. Part of his childhood Lieutenant Colonel Osorio passed by Captain Rhodes, why always consider also as a father and his sister Mrs. Martha Rhodes. Primary education I perform in Sonsonate, Santa Ana and San Salvador, and Professional School Captain General Gerardo Barrios Military of the capital. His higher education in various national and foreign academies three years but mainly in the War College in Turin, Italy, returning to the country in October 1943.

On December 14, 1948 was a coup of the "young soldiers" against President Salvador Castaneda Castro. Osorio, ultimately with the rank of major, was added as the diplomatic mission of El Salvador in Mexico, and was named to head the provisional government called the Revolutionary Governing Council, which also included the biggest Oscar Bolaños and civilians Reynaldo Galindo Pohl and Heriberto Costa.

Under the new constitution of 1950 presidential elections were held. In the elections of that year, he ran the Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification, created in 1945, and won the only opposition candidate, Jose Ascencio Colonel Menendez, who introduced the Renewal Action Party.

Constitution became President of El Salvador in 1950 and Osorio's government coincided with a boom because the coffee and cotton prices rose considerably. His presidency adopted a plan of social reform as the introduction of social security for urban workers and the creation of Urban Housing Institute (UTI) and developmental measures (promotion of a limited industrialization). With what he perceived the state in taxes on exports of coffee were initiated numerous public works, especially the creation of Port Executive Commission, ECA, the construction of the Hydroelectric Dam "November 5," the Coast Highway and the so-called "Golden Bridge" over the Lempa River, numerous schools and multifamily housing complexes. It is also celebrated with great pomp the anniversary of the coup of December 14th (officially known as the Revolution of 1948).

There was also a strong boost to the arts, and established a bursary scheme for artists to study outside the country.

At the same time, however, along with the democratic opening, created a law which placed the country under a suspension of individual rights and collective, the Law on Defense of the Constitutional Order. Based on it, from 1952 until the end of his term, Osorio developed a policy of selective repression against labor leaders and students, before the rise of the movement of the people of the struggles that led to the overthrow of General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez in 1944. For prisons Osorio passed, as political disappearances, the most important leaders of the Salvadoran left, as labor leaders Salvador Cayetano Carpio and his wife Tula Alvarenga, student leader Gabriel Gallegos Valdés and academic Celestino Castro. All were interrogated and tortured at the National Police, as documented in his book Abduction Carpio and hood, first published in 1956.

At the time of Osorio began growing cotton on a large scale in the plains of the coast, especially in the east of the country.

Another important fact is the American economic integration treaties signed in 1951.

His grades of Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio:

Promoted to Lieutenant on 12 December 1931, was promoted to Lieutenant, June 15, 1934, was promoted to Captain, October 15, 1937, rose to captain Staff, October 15, 1937, was promoted to Colonel, September 9, 1950

Decorations Lieutenant Colonel Oscar Osorio:

Decoration of the collar of the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle in July 1951.
Bernardo O'Higgins Award of Merit in the Grade of Grand Cross of the Republic of Chile, October 1951.
Decoration of the Order of Ruben Dario, who was awarded the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua in January 1952.
Crux Decoration of the Special Order "Basque Núñez de Balboa" of the Government of Panama in September 1952.
Award "Order of Merit of Ecuador in the Grade of Grand Cross Special" in May 1953.

Lieutenant Colonel Jose Maria Lemus
He ruled as president:
of September 14, 1956 up to March 9, 1959
He ruled as president:
of March 31, 1959 to October 26, 1960

The nationality of Lt. Col. José María Lemus has been very controversial, some say he was born in Conquin, others in Mark it, both populations of the Republic of Honduras. His name is Jose Maria Lopez said, for his presidential campaign presented a paper that he was born in Puerto de la Union on July 22, 1911.
His mother, Dona Dominga Lopez and a sister named Marta
Married: Donna Coralia Párraga Lemus; begat seven children. Elected president in 1956, which was presented as the sole candidate. He could not continue the moderate social reform policies of his predecessor Oscar Osorio, by reducing government revenues amid falling coffee prices, which led to unrest and protests. He was ousted before the end of the constitutional term of 6 years, who had been elected, according to the constitution of 1950
Their promotion of Lieutenant Colonel Lemus:
A second lieutenant, on October 20, 1933
A Lieutenant, September 29, 1936
A Captain, March 29, 1940
A Captain Major, April 3, 1945
A Lieutenant Colonel, April 5, 1949

Governing Board
End of 1960 by persecution, torture and arrests President José María Lemus was overthrown. On October 26, three soldiers and three civilians assume the government forming the governing board. The junta ruled El Salvador from October 26, 1960 until being overthrown by a military group led by Anibal Portillo, who formed the Civic-Military Directory. Members of the Governing Board were:

Magaña Dr.Fortín
Failure Dr.Ricardo Cáceres
Uriah Cnel.César Yanes
Angel Castillo Tcnel.Miguel
Mayor Ruben Alonso Rosales

Civic-Military Directory
On January 25, 1961 a group of soldiers led by Anibal Portillo overthrew the junta and formed the Civic-Military Directory integrated civilian-military which are:

Portillo Cnel.Aníbal
Adalberto Rivera Cnel.Julio
Avelar Dr.Feliciano
Dr. José Antonio Rodríguez Porth
Dr. José Francisco Valiente
On April 6, 1961 Drs José Antonio Rodríguez and José Francisco Valiente Porth gave the Board civil-military on September 11, 1961 resigned from the board Civil Military Colonel Julio Adalberto Rivera was named to replace him Colonel Mariano Castro Morán .

In 1961, he announced elections for a constituent assembly, the president of the constituent assemblies Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea was, on January 25, 1962 was declared the new Constitution of El Salvador and Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea was declared interim president, while preparing the ballot for the election.

Cea Rodolfo Cordon
Interim President of the Republic of El Salvador:
January 25 to July 1, 1962

Dr. Rodolfo Cordón Juayúa born, dept. Sonsonate on December 16, 1899 and died in Mejicanos on January 9, 1966. At his residence in the colony "Las Colinas".
His parents were: Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Gordon Salguero Rosaura Jimenez Cordón Cea.
He was married to Dona Cord White Moon. His sons: Mr. Rodolfo Cordón Luna, Dr. Enriqueta Cord Henriquez, Ms. Luz Elba Castillo Cord and Cord Marenco Rosario. In 1961 he was President of the National Constituent Assembly that drafted the current Constitution of the country and in 1962 he held a provisional President of the Republic, giving the supreme command of the nation on July 1 of that year the President elected by the Conciliation Party National.




Lt. Col. Julio Adalberto Rivera
President of the Republic of El Salvador:
1st July 1962 a June 30, 1967

Colonel Julio Adalberto Rivera was born in Zacatecoluca department of La Paz on September 2, 1921, and died of a heart attack on the morning of July 29, 1973, on his farm, located in San Jose Guayabal, 25 km from San Salvador. It was a Salvadoran military and political, president of the republic (1962-1967) and founder of the National Conciliation Party in 1961.

His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Salvador Rivera Mercedes Rivera Carballo.
He was married to Dona Bertha Castaneda de Rivera. He entered the Military Academy in 1939. He graduated as second lieutenant in 1944. Among his prominent positions played by Coronel Rivera:
Guardiciones several military commander, member of the Secretary of Defense.
In 1952 he was appointed by the Ministry of Defence as a student to enter the regular course (first year). School of War, in term time from 1952 to 1953.
In 1954 he was transferred to Italy, to study staff at the War College Civitavecchia, approved the course with excellent grades.
In 1957 he entered the country as an assistant professor at the Army War College

On October 26, 1960, is involved in the coup that overthrew President Jose Maria Lemus. On January 25, 1961 he joined the provisional government of Military Civic Directory. The following year he presents as the sole candidate in presidential elections.

He began his government on July 1, 1962, with the vice president's lawyer Francisco Roberto Lima. His government signed agreements with the United States in the framework of the Alliance for Progress and develop some social and political reforms to rein in leftist movements, stimulated by the recent triumph of the Cuban Revolution. Launched a plan to build infrastructure, including the dock of the Port of Acajutla, modernization of industry and embarked on the creation of the Central American Common Market. He gave the presidency to General Fidel Sanchez Hernandez, July 1, 1967. Between 1968 and 1973 he was ambassador to El Salvador in the United States.

During his administration created the Nationalist Democratic Organization (ORDEN), with the aim of providing a body mass popular support to the National Conciliation Party, which had brought him to power; ORDER become a powerful paramilitary organization of official repression . It also created the National Security Agency of El Salvador (ANSESAL), a body controlled by the military intelligence and was accountable only to the President of the Republic. Both groups were founded by General Jose Alberto Medrano, intelligence chief and later director of the National Guard, noted as the creator of the death squads in the early sixties.

General Fidel Sanchez Hernandez
President of the Republic of El Salvador
July 1, 1967 to July 1, 1972

General Fidel Sanchez Hernandez was born in Divisadero, Morazán Department, the July 7, 1917.
His parents were Don Vicente Estrada Sánchez (now deceased) and Mrs.. Teresa Hernandez Echeverria.
He is married to Ms. Marina Uriarte Sanchez Hernandez
Their children: Arely, Manuel Vicente, Teresa Marina and Fidel Angel.
In 1945 he joined the School Captains, from which he received a scholarship for studies at the Army School of Armor at Fort Knox, USA
On his return from America, served on the General Staff of the Armed Forces, where the then government appointed him a delegate to the United Nations Commission on corea.VSánchez Hernandez was military attaché at the Embassy of El Salvador, Washington between 1960 and 1962. He was Minister of the Interior (1962-1966) the government of President Julio Adalberto Rivera.
On October 24, 1966 was elected by the National Conciliation Party candidate for President of the Republic, and November 19 of that year, officially proclaimed his candidacy. In the elections of March 5, 1967 was elected President of the Republic. As President-elect attended as head of the Delegation of El Salvador to the Conference of Heads of State Summit of the Americas, held in Punta del Este, Uruguay, 12 to April 14, 1967.
He assumed the presidency of the Republic on July 1, 1967 for the constitutional period from 1967 to 1972. At the invitation of the Korean Government General Sanchez Hernandez went on working visit to that country on September 25, 1970. In return trip also visited Japan. He also made a visit to Mexico.
The main event of his administration was the war against Honduras called Soccer War. At the end of his government was accused of organizing an electoral fraud in favor of presidential candidate of the CPN, Arturo Armando Molina, who was eventually declared president and replaced Sanchez Hernandez. He also had to face a coup attempt, the March 25, 1972, led by Colonel Benjamin Mejia.

Colonel Arturo Armando Molina
President of the Republic of El Salvador
1st July 1972 to July 1, 1977

Colonel Arturo Armando Molina, born in San Salvador, August 6, 1927.
His parents, Lt. Col. Mariano Barraza Molina and Molina Matilde.
Married to María Elena Contreras Molina, his sons, Oscar Armando, Roberto, Jorge Alberto, Ernesto and Mario Crisel Guadalupe.
In 1945 he entered the Military Academy, which discharge with the rank of second lieutenant of Infantry in 1949, lieutenant, December 10, 1951 Captain of Infantry in 1949 to lieutenant, December 10, 1951, to captain the May 27, 1955, a senior captain on September 14, 1960 to Lieutenant Colonel on 1st February 1965 to colonel on February 1, 1969.
From 1962 to 1964, was a board member of Admin. Railroad El Salvador.
Director of the Autonomous Executive Port Commission of Acajutla, from 1964 to 1968 and a delegate to the agency for visitors to port facilities in several countries of North, Central and South America. In 1971 the outgoing president Fidel Sanchez Hernandez was named presidential candidate of the ruling National Conciliation Party for elections next year.

The elections took place on 20 February 1972. The opposition formed a grand coalition, the National Opposition Union (UNO) and ran for Democrat Jose Napoleon Duarte. In the days following the election, one had repeated allegations of massive fraud in the voting and counting. Election officials ignored the accusations and declared president-elect Colonel Molina. On March 25, 1972, a group of soldiers led by Colonel Benjamin Mejia attempted a coup d'etat in protest against the "voter fraud" but the attempt was crushed by forces loyal to the government. After the failure of the military civic movement, Duarte and other opposition leaders were exiled.

Colonel Molina took office on July 1, 1972. Taking advantage of the boom in coffee prices, launched a plan to build infrastructure with the slogan "a school day." He built hospitals and schools and the Cerron Grande hydroelectric dam. In 1976, President Molina proposed to implement a land reform that was rejected by the country's business sectors and had to be abandoned.

While doing some moderate reforms, the government of Molina proposed force to repress leftist groups. On July 19, 1972 ordered the military occupation of the University of El Salvador on charges of being the headquarters of the armed left. During the Molina government, security forces carried out a violent crackdown on the opposition between stressed state violence, the slaughter of July 30, 1975, when a protest of university students was broken up with bullets, causing dozens of dead and missing.

In the last months of his administration, the political crisis intensified. In the presidential elections of February 1977, there were new allegations of fraud had been committed for the candidate of the CPN, Carlos Humberto Romero, protected from Molina. Left-wing armed groups abducted businessman Roberto Poma and Foreign Minister, Mauricio Borgonovo Pohl. The far-right paramilitary groups murdered the priests Rutilio Grande S. J. (March 12, 1977) and Alfonso Navarro (May 11, 1977) belonging to the progressive sectors of the Catholic Church.

Colonel Molina ended his term on 1 July 1977. After leaving government, he lived outside the country. He returned to El Salvador in 1992.

General Carlos Humberto Romero
President of the Republic of El Salvador:
from July 1, 1977
Overthrown October 15, 1979 by a revolutionary junta

Gen. Carlos Humberto Romero Mena was born in the city of Chalatenango, February 29, 1924.
His parents: Don Jose Maria Romero (deceased) and Queen Victoria Romero Mena.
His Wife: Doña Gloria Romero Guerrero.
Their children: Carlos Humberto, Luis Felipe, Gloria Romero Valentina Roxana Guerrero Carolina.

He studied at the Ecole Militaire "Captain General Gerardo Barrios" in the School of Command and Staff College, all campuses in El Salvador. He specialized studies Riding in Mexico City

Has complied with the following missions: Delegate to the inauguration of President of the Republic of Mexico in 1964, Delegate to the inauguration of President of the Republic of Colombia in 1970, delegate to the Seventh Conference of American Armies in 1966, Delegate the Sixth Conference of American intelligence officers in 1967.
In 1973 he served as Chairman of the Central American Defense Council (CONDECA).

Colonel Romero Mena was named dated July 1, 1972, Minister of Defense and Public Security, the Office of the President then, Colonel Arturo Armando Molina.
Then he ran for P.C.N. and won the election for 1977-1982 was July 1st President of the Republic. The opposition forces grouped in the National Opposition Union (UNO) had made numerous allegations of electoral fraud and coercion committed in the election. The period between his election and inauguration, proved to be extremely dangerous to his opponents. On February 28, 1977, military forces broke up a protest rally of the UNO, in the Plaza Libertad in San Salvador. Romero General took office on July 1, 1977. Responded to the complaints of the opposition "electoral fraud" with the declaration of state of siege for thirty days and launched a rigidly conservative government. Government violence (state terrorism) was constant during the time he served as president. The various police forces, pro-government military and paramilitary prompted a bloody campaign of repression against leftist groups that took the lives of 4 Catholic priests and numerous leaders and organizations of workers and peasants. The leftist groups, responding to insurgent violence by the state attacks on security forces and government officials. Repression uncontrolled plunged the country into a serious social crisis. President Romero was overthrown in a coup by a group of young soldiers on October 15, 1979 and went into exile in Guatemala.

First Revolutionary Government
Colonel Jaime Abdul Gutierrez and
Mr. Mario Antonio Andino
Mr. Roman Mayorga Quiroz
Dr. Guillermo Manuel Ungo
Colonel Adolfo Majano Ramos

To the extent that opposition to the government of General Carlos Humberto Romero deepened, some military realized that it would be necessary to make changes to the country's political leadership to avoid a major confrontation. Weighed in his analysis the fall of dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle in Nicaragua in mid-1979. Also weighing on the analysis of the Salvadoran military to defend U.S. policy of human rights by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Carter had already sent their emissaries to San Salvador to express their condemnation of the repression unleashed by the government of General Romero and try to persuade him to seek a negotiation with their political enemies.

Meanwhile, the opposition to the regime of Romero felt strong and confident enough to openly press for enforcement. When the government reestablished the constitutional guarantees in March 1979, began strikes and shots of public buildings that the police tried to control without much success. By contrast, the use of firearms to disperse demonstrations was broadcast by television cameras into the homes of Americans and Europeans, who watched in horror as the massacre of the steps of the cathedral of San Salvador in May 1979. The governments of West Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Britain and Costa Rica decided to close their embassies in El Salvador to the incontrolabe spiral of violence.

On October 15, 1979, a coup led by the self-Military Youth Movement overthrew President Salvador in turn, Gen. Carlos Humberto Romero (1977-1979), ending 17 years of government of the conservative Party of National Conciliation ( PCN). President Romero in the two and a half years of his mandate was faced with an escalation of repression the growing revolutionary movement. The mass organizations had occupied virtually the streets, and were faced with direct attacks on National Guard and the Army. The guerrilla groups operating in the city and the countryside with increasing ease, and is dedicated not only to fight against security forces, but also the extermination of the members of the Nationalist Democratic Organization (ORDEN), a group created mass government in the early sixties, at that time met paramilitary task of reporting lz militants left. From a year earlier, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) of the Organization of American States (OAS) prepared a report condemning the government of Romero, who was present at a meeting to be held on October 22, 1979 in La Paz (Bolivia). In previous months, in addition, the U.S. Pesident, James Carter, sent several times Undersecretary of State Viron Vaky to meet with Romero to warn that he should resign or call early elections, preferably in 1980. Romero, a soldier with a high institutional sense, they refused. The coup counted as supported by the United States government, which considered the general Romero had lost control of the country situation and showed concern about the strengthening of the armed left. After several months of negotiations within the plots and army, the armed endorsed the Military Youth project.

The coup was backed by the so-called People's Forum, established last September, in which some of the organizations at that time fighting in the streets, as the National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS), which was the most powerful trade union , belonging to the Unified Popular Action Front (FAPU), and People's League "February 28" (LP-28). Also do was the Salvadoran Communist Party, through its electoral front, the National Democratic Union and several labor groups. Popular Forum Other forces were the Christian Democratic Party (El Salvador) (PDC), the Social National Revolutionary Movement (MNR) and the Central American Unionist Party (PUCA).

After intense and rapid negotiations between the military, the People's Forum and members of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of El Salvador (CCIES) (the latter without the official endorsement of private business), created the first stage of the Revolutionary Government (JRG), or Primera Junta, composed of two soldiers and three civilians.

The military, proposed by the Military Youth and ratified by meetings held in all quarters of the country, were Colonel Jaime Abdul Gutierrez Adolfo Arnoldo Majano. Civilians were Román Mayorga Quiroz, eventually rector of the Universidad Centroamericana "Jose Simeon Canas, the Society of Jesus, Mario Andino, a former vice president of the CCIES and Guillermo Manuel Ungo, the MNR. The coup leaders, presented a centrist government program, and promised a series of social reforms such as land reform and nationalization of the banking and trading coffee (main crop) and the cessation of violence by security forces against civilians and implementation of a true democratic system in the country. It appointed a cabinet of ministers of varied composition, involving former opponents to the governments of the PCN, including Ruben Zamora as the Democratic presidential minister and businessman Henry Córdoba Álvarez as minister of agriculture but also representatives of the conservative country like Col. Jose Guillermo Garcia, Minister of Defense.

The Archbishop of San Salvador, Monsignor Oscar Arnulfo Romero, who had denounced human rights abuses of the government of General Romero, publicly expressed his hope in the good intentions of the new government. Conversely, leftist groups increased protests and strikes throughout the country and refused to talk with the new government.

Struck by the absence in the JRG a member of the Christian Democratic Party, the traditional organization and stronger opposition in El Salvador. This was due to a move by the MNR and the PCS in the People's Forum, which prevented the arrival of a leading Christian Democrat power or influence to neutralize the other civilian members, and Jose Napoleon Duarte, Adolfo Rey Prendes or Jose Antonio Morales Erlich. However, the PDC was not going to "spend" their strong parts, and sent to the Board the young members of the progressive sector, and Mario Zamora, Ruben Zamora, Hector Dada Hirezi and Jorge Villacorta, who nonetheless won key positions, as the Office of the President and key ministries.

The presence of Mayorga, Ungo and progressive PDC, as well as figures linked to the Jesuits left, warned the private company that did not support (and even sabotaged) to your representative, the traditional military, temporarily retracted, also were on guard. They immediately began the conflict between civilian participants in government, and between them and the military. It was clear that the alliance would not last long, and the army began parallel discussions with the traditional members of the PDC.

Although it was hoped that the coup and the formation of JRG slow the popular movement, or at least give a break, things got worse. Although PCS is provided "critical support" to the government and several leading militants occupied ministries, deputy ministers and offices, FAPU took to the street fighting with the Popular Revolutionary Bloc a petition to demand very similar to that posed Proclamation of the Armed Forces as part of its plan of government, wage increases, land reform, dissolution of ORDER. freeze rents, and so on. What's more, the LP-28 shooting in peripheral populations, supported by the People's Revolutionary Army (El Salvador), and called the insurrection were attacked by security forces, with heavy casualties among its members and the population civil. The repression against the left did not stop because many officers of the Armed Forces, maintained their partnerships with the death squads (far-right groups) under the new government, as before, during the presidency of General Romero, exerting considerable pressure on any member of the Board to try to implement the plan promised reforms. Death squads operated with impunity, killing those suspected of being sympathizers of the armed left-wing and even members of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) even though this party supported the new government. Within the first week after the junta took power, human rights organizations reported hundreds of deaths due to political violence.

Shots of factories, ministries of Labour and Economy, the pursuit of the guerrillas against militants ORDER (dissolved by decree within days of the coup), the daily demonstrations and attacks on National Guard garrisons in the field is added to the conflicts between the ruling parties, especially the pressures of civilians against the military, young or traditional. Conservative institutional sectors and the army also came into conflict with the young soldiers, and they reproached his former allies to sabotage the Proclamation. Thus, December 28, 1979 there was a meeting between members of the civilian cabinet, the JRG and representatives of different sectors of the army, which ended in a confrontation that led to the breakup of the First Board. The spiral of violence between armed groups left, the death squads and security forces continued during November and December 1979, the country was a pre-war environment, as expected takes to implement agrarian reform. Meanwhile, the internal contradictions within the Board soon became apparent, with Colonel Majano representing the viewpoint of progressive military sectors and Colonel Gutierez representing the views of more conservative sectors of the Armed Forces. Between 2 and 5 January 1980, the three civilian members of the Board, resigned, along with cabinet ministers, except the defense minister, Colonel Garcia. On January 2, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero held a mediation meeting, which failed, then, in parallel, they were giving up several cabinet members, and resignations continue for the next week

Second Revolutionary Government

A few days later, they formed a new Board of Directors based on an agreement between the Christian Democratic Party and the Armed Forces. The agreement expressed the willingness of both parties to carry out agrarian reform and nationalization (control by the state) of the banking and foreign trade. Within the PDC, although many of the progressives had left the government, others remained in their positions (as the prosecutor Mario Zamora), and were the majority in the Political Commission. Thus, the January 9, 1980, announcing the new formation of the Revolutionary Government, known as the Second Board.

In addition to Gutierrez and Majano, were included José Antonio Morales Ehrlich, the traditional sector of the PDC, Hector Dada Hirezi, Progressive, who had held the portfolio of Foreign Affairs in the First Board, and José Ramón Avalos Navarrete, a physician hitherto unknown in the political arena, which was presented as an independent figure. On 9 January 1980 as the second Revolutionary Government, with the participation of two soldiers who were part of the former, Adolfo Arnoldo Majano and Jaime Abdul Gutierrez with political leaders and Hector Dada Hirezi José Antonio Morales Ehrlich ( both members of the Christian Democrats) and the doctor Jose Ramon Avalos.

The second meeting lasted just two months. On March 9 Hirezi resignations, and instead entered the key figure PDC: its historic leader, Jose Napoleon Duarte. The other members of the JRG remained in their places, but there was a definite change of direction and a major realignment in the correlation of political forces. On 22 January, leftist groups formed the Revolutionary Coordinator of Masses, in a first effort of unification. The right wing began to accuse the new government of complacency towards the left wing, the February 24, a death squad assassinated the Attorney General's Office, Mario Zamora Rivas, a leading member of the PDC.

On March 6, 1980, the JRG approved the anticipated land reform laws and nationalization of banking. On March 10, Hector Dada, resigned within the JRG, sitting in place, the leader of the PDC, Jose Napoleon Duarte. On the 24th of that month, a death squad, murdered Archbishop Oscar Romero, after he made a call to the soldiers of the armed forces to stop the repression against the peasants. Archbishop Romero's assassination shocked the country.

On 17 April, the Revolutionary Coordinator of Masses joined with other leftist political organizations to form the Democratic Revolutionary Front (FDR). In August 1980, there was a call for general strike which was suppressed by the army. In September 1980, Col. Arnoldo Majano, progressive military representative, resigned.

Indeed in March 1980, decreed land reform desire of many landless leaders of the center and the political left. Under the land reform decree, all private property would be greater than 500 hectares expropriated and given to cooperatives, while those farmers who rented land would have the option to buy in installments.

However, this measure was a time when the situation in some parts of the country was already open conflict, could hardly promote effective land reform when soldiers and guerrillas were already facing in various rural areas of the country.

In any case, land reform, affecting about 16% of the country's arable land, especially in central and eastern areas.

The nationalization of the banking and foreign trade, held in the month of March 1980, it was understood as complementary to that of land reform.

Over the banks into state hands, they will be able to channel loans to cooperatives and landowners that were being created in rural areas under the agrarian reform.

Also state control of foreign trade of the main export products meant that the state captured the gains before ending at the hands of the owners of the companies exporting coffee, cotton and sugar. Of course these measures were rejections in its entirety by private Sectra, which saw a series of measures cum "socializing" while the military conflict raged.

Within the same forces were disagreements about the direction the government should take of the board: whether to move forward with land reform, promoting the so-called "Phase Two" (which eventually expropriate any property in excess of 150 hectares), or increase the military effort to control the guerrillas.

Both alternatives sought the same goal: the leftist guerrillas imposed removing "flags" (ie the people offering you things like that offered the same left) or defeat in the strictly military. Over time, the prevailing option for the military solution did not pass major reforms of that decree, the Board in March 1980.

Third Revolutionary Government
Doctor Ramón Avalos Navarrete
Colonel Jaime Abdul Gutierrez
Jose Napoleon Duarte Engineer
Doctor José Antonio Morales Ehrlich

After the departure of Majano, the government was known as the Third Revolutionary Government, and was composed of a single military, Colonel Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez and civilians Jose Napoleon Duarte, Antonio Morales Ehrlich, and José Ramón Avalos Navarrete. The government of the new Board continued to implement the promised land reform and real democracy.

During the months following the violence spilled over into the country's far-right groups continued to operate unchecked. In October 1980, was killed the rector of the University of El Salvador, Félix Ulloa and November by the leaders of the FDR, with the crimes attributed to the action of death squads. These murders radicalized sectors of the left who responded by accelerating its process of unification: the October 10 armed leftist organizations formed the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front.

The government managed to contain the offensive of 1981, also known as "final offensive", the first large-scale launched by the newly founded FMLN in January. Although the offense failed, the FMLN forces were not destroyed and mostly retreated to the country's rural areas. The FMLN broke up his group of bodies and strengthened its military structures, ushering in a protracted civil war, culminating in the Peace Accords of Chapultepec, January 16, 1992.

In mid 1981, the Board announced that he would call elections for a constituent assembly, during the following year. The elections were held on March 28, 1982. The National Constitutional Assembly took office on May 2, 1982, and elected as provisional President Alvaro Magaña banker who replaced the government to the JRG.

Dr. Alvaro Magaña Borja
the 2nd May 1982 to 1 June 1984

Born in Ahuachapán, El Salvador, on October 8, 1925. He is married to Concha Marina Granados de Magaña, who has fathered 6 children: Maria Elena Castrillo Magana, Alvaro Alfredo Jose Mario Ernesto Federico, all surnamed Magaña, Maria Teresa Magaña Gilbert and Ana Marina Magana Ortega.
A PhD in Jurisprudence and Social Sciences, performed at the Faculty of Law, University of El Salvador. Master's Degree in Economics from the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA and has a Post Graduate in Economics and Finance, University degli Studi di Roma, Italy.

The main charges that Dr. Magaña has played are:
Secretary of the Treasury, 1960-1961, Director, Department of Economic Affairs of the Pan American Union (OAS) from 1961 to 1965, Executive Director of the joint taxation OAS / IDB / ECLAC, 1961 to 1965, Chairman of Banco Hipotecario de El Salvador , 1965-1982, Director of the Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador, 1976-1982. Advisory Board Member of the Monetary and Economic Ministerial Committee, 1972-1977 and 1980-1982. He served as President of the 2nd May 1982 to 1 June 1984. After leaving office, to present Dr. Magaña is dedicated to researching and publishing books and articles on issues of Constitutional Law, Tax Law and related subjects. Among his publications we quote: "Tax Constitutional Law: The Principle of Legality." 1993, "Budget Salvadoran Constitutional Law." 1996, "Considerations on the Salvadoran Constitution." 1996, "Fundamental Rights and Constitution." 1997, "The Principle Constitutionalisation Reserve Tax Law in El Salvador." 1997. And articles on Agricultural Economics, Public Finance, Tax Law and Constitutional Law in specialized El Salvador, United States, Argentina, Spain and Italy.

Jose Napoleon Duarte
from June 1, 1984 to June 1, 1989.

Born in San Salvador on November 23, 1925, married to Dona Ines Duarte Duran.
Their children are: Inés Guadalupe, José Napoleon, José Alejandro, Maria Elena, Maria Eugenia, Ana Lorena Duarte Bermudez.

Their primary, secondary and high schools performed at the Lyceum the Salvadoran town of San Salvador, El Salvador, graduating from high school in the year 1944. His higher studies were done at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America and then joined the National University of El Salvador, Faculty of Civil Engineering.

Other tests performed:

Political Economy Seminar
Political ideology Courses
Municipal Public Administration Seminar
Post-Graduate Courses Structural Engineering
He received an honorary doctorate from University of Notre Dame, United States, Boston University, USA, University of Sienna, Argentina.
Carried out various activities such as a university professor teaching the Chair of Structural Calculations at the National University of El Salvador, Professor of Mathematics at the Military School Captain General Gerardo Barrios, Counsel for the Simón Bolívar Centre in the draft Urban Renewal and Housing Caracas .

Among the business and professions that Mr. Duarte made include:

Founding member of Duran Duarte SA Company dedicated to the construction
Partner of the Salvadoran Chamber of Construction, CASALCO.
Among the political activities was: Founder of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC), First Secretary General of the Christian Democratic Party 1960-1964, was elected Mayor of San Salvador by popular vote for 3 consecutive periods: 1964-66, 1966-68 , 1968-70, Candidate for President of the Republic of El Salvador, the National Opposition Union, 1972.
Exiled from the country in 1972, returns to the country in 1974 was again an expatriate, he returned to the country in October 1979. It is part of the third revolutionary junta of government March 10, 1980 and serves as its President.
Doctor handing over power to Alvaro Magana, 1 May 1982 and participate in the election for President of the Republic, which won in a runoff with 56.3% of the valid votes.

Constitutional President of the Republic and Commander of the Armed Forces of June 1, 1984 to June 1, 1989. Within the period called a meeting the leadership of the FMLN and FDR in La Palma, Chalatenango, in order to seek an end to the conflict. However, this initiative, like similar ones which were made in subsequent years, can not get a negotiated settlement. The Left demanded the creation of a new government with broad participation of all political forces, while on the other hand the President Duarte asked the insurgency deposition of weapons in exchange for joining the country's political life as a party political. According to President Duarte, the causes that had led to conflict and were overtaken or being pregnant, why the left and had no justification to continue the armed struggle. In other words, meeting in La Palma and afterwards ended up dialogues of the deaf.

Upon completion of his presidential term and suffer from a terminal illness, Mr. Duarte decided to create an organization that goes by the name Jose Napoleon Duarte Foundation, emerging legally July 8, 1988, which aims to work on behalf of Salvadoran women, developing projects of any kind. The foundation's board is made up of family and friends of former President Duarte.

Mr. Duarte died in San Salvador, February 23, 1990 at the age of 65.

Alfredo Felix Cristiani
1 June 1989 to June 1, 1994

Born in San Salvador, capital of the country on November 22, 1947. Son of Mrs. Cristiani Burkard Margoth and Don Felix Cristiani spent his childhood and youth between the countryside and the city. He learned to handle aircraft and helicopters.

Course academic studies in the United States Georgetown University DC , Where he graduated in business administration.
He married Margarita Llach, have three children: Alexander Felix, Javier Alfredo and Claudia Margarita.

He has worked as a farmer and businessman of industries and services. It has been a director of several trade organizations. In the early eighties Mr. Cristiani began to intervene in the politics of his country as a member of ARENA Nationalist Republic Alliance party in 1984 was elected to the Board of his party and the year next president of the council.

ARENA selected him as a candidate for President of the Republic of El Salvador, in the elections of March 1989. Won first place with over 50% of votes.

On 1 June of that year assumed the judiciary of El Salvador at the age of 41 years as one of the youngest American Presidents.

Today it operates in the business of the country.

Dr. Armando Calderon Sol
of June 1, 1994 to June 1, 1999

Born in San Salvador, El Salvador, June 24, 1948. He is married to Ms. Elizabeth Aguirre de Calderón Sol, who has fathered three children. His primary and secondary education was conducted by the College Externado San Jose, where he graduated Bachelor of Science and Letters. In 1977, he received his investiture as Doctor of Jurisprudence and Social Sciences at the National University of El Salvador.

In his private life has been dedicated to their professional and business activities.

Dr. Armando Calderon Sol, is one of the main founders of the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) in 1981 and was part of the First National Executive Council (COEN), Director of Legal Affairs.

Among his political positions are: performance as a deputy to the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador and Head of Parliamentary Faction of ARENA in 1985. In 1986, he was appointed as Vice-President of the National Board of Directors of the Inter-Party Union, based in Geneva, Switzerland.

In 1988 he was elected Mayor of San Salvador and First President of the Salvadoran Institute for Municipal Development (ISDEM) and President of the Corporation of Municipalities of the Republic of El Salvador (COMURES).

In recognition of its political leadership, in 1988 he was elected as President of the ARENA party and the National Executive Council (COENA). In 1990 he was reelected Chairman of the party and COENA. And in 1991, in recognition of his extensive urban and social work, gets re-election as Mayor of San Salvador.

As President of ARENA, actively participated in the negotiation process that culminated with the signing of the Peace Accords, the January 16, 1992.

In the elections of April 1994, by a wide margin the Salvadoran people elected Constitutional President of the Republic of El Salvador, in a political contest, which was attended by the various currents of political spectrum, having reached an electoral victory 70 percent of the overall vote.

President Calderón Sol, their professional training, is a staunch advocate of democratic institutions within the rule of law, it is also an ardent promoter of social system market economy in El Salvador, projecting strongly oriented towards social development .

Its main objectives are the modernization of public administration to achieve the conversion of the private sector and the inclusion of El Salvador in the process of economic globalization, taking as a basic parameter, development and welfare of the human person. Similarly, President Calderon Sol, is dedicated to the consolidation of peace and the democratic process.

In the global and regional fora, the President of El Salvador, has a definite position on economic and social integration, hosting and supporting initiatives to create a platform that allows the integration of Latin American countries.

In recognition of his statesmanship promoter of peace, democracy and peaceful coexistence, President Calderon Sol has received awards, provided by friendly governments and institutions internationally renowned, counting, including the following:

Doctorate Honoris Causa of the prestigious Soka University, Japan; Order "Brilliant Jade" in the rank of Grand Cordon, conferred by the Republic of China; Order "El Sol del Peru" in the Grade of Grand Cross, awarded by the Republic of Peru Award "Knight of the Collar" of the Order of Isabel La Catolica, Spain; Order "General José Dolores Estrada, Batalla de San Jacinto", the Republic of Nicaragua; Award "George F. Hixson," conferred by Kiwanis Club International in recognition of the work done for children.

Major objectives of President Calderon Sol: consolidating peace, democracy and the rule of law, and promote sustainable development in El Salvador and Central America, based overcoming integral and dignity of the human person.

Promote and support regional integration initiatives and international strategic alliances, within globalizing economies.

Mr. Francisco Flores
for 1999-2004

Mr. Francisco Guillermo Flores Perez, former President of the Republic of El Salvador, was born in the western city of Santa Ana on October 17, 1959.

It comes from two families of noble spirits and great dedication patriotic, to such an extent that his various ancestors fought for the dignity and freedom of El Salvador at different moments in national history. His great-grandfather, General Antonio Joaquin Perez, took part in the military exploits of the "44", in April 1894 and from Santa Ana, began the overthrow of tyranny double-headed of the brothers Carlos and Antonio Ezeta. Another ancestor, Francisco Guillermo Perez's lawyer, became judge of the Supreme Court and participated on April 2, 1944 in the attempted coup that marked the beginning of the end of the long rule of General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez.

His grandparents were hard working, dedicated to agriculture and small businesses, feelings for the earth and honest work that were bequeathed to his parents, lawyer and economist ethnographer Ulises Flores and Maria Flores Leonor Perez , who fathered two sons and a daughter within her marriage: Francisco Guillermo, Juan Carlos and Rosa Maria.

The young Francis Flores entered the capital's American School for courses in basic education and regulatory high school, who capped a brilliant academic and intellectual.

Your stay in this prestigious bilingual institution, gave opportunity to expand their worldview and to acquire fluency in the use of a second language. In addition, it was in those intense years student and youth when she met Maria Lourdes Rodriguez, a future psychologist and educator who in 1985 became his wife and mother of his daughter Gabriela and her son John Mark.

Elías Antonio Saca González (born in Usulután, 9 March 1965) is a Salvadoran politician and was the President of El Salvador. He was elected President in 2004 to serve a five-year term that ended in 2009.

Saca is descended from Palestinian (Catholic Christian) immigrants who arrived in El Salvador in the early 20th century from the West Bank town of Bethlehem. Prior to becoming President he was a broadcast journalist, specializing in sports radio and a prominent businessman. He attended the University of Central America. He is an outspoken Evangelical Protestant and has expressed his faith through his historic friendliness with Salvadoran and American Protestant churches.

On 21 March 2004 Saca was elected President of El Salvador, and on 1 June 2004 succeeded President Francisco Flores. Both Saca and Flores are members of the conservative Nationalist Republican Alliance party, generally known by its Spanish-language acronym ARENA.

During the election campaign, some commentators criticized Saca's lack of political experience. In the election, Saca defeated leftist Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) candidate, Schafik Handal, also of Palestinian descent.

Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena (born 18 October 1959 in San Salvador) is the President of El Salvador. He won the 2009 presidential election as the candidate of the left-wing Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) political party and took office on 1 June 2009.

Funes is married to Dr. Vanada Pignado, who was involved in the Workers' Party in Brazil.They have one son, Gabriel. Funes received his High School Diploma (Bachillerato) from the Externado San José, and completed his licenciate in literature at Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas"(UCA). Both Externado and UCA are jesuit institutions, something that has deeply influenced president Funes. In this respect, Funes has mentioned his relationship to the murdered scholars of UCA as of particular significance in his professional and personal development. In 1994 he was awarded the Maria Moors Cabot prize from Columbia University for promoting press freedom and inter-American understanding.

Funes' brother was killed during the Salvadoran Civil War. His oldest son, Alejandro Funes Velasco, who was 27 years old, died after being attacked in Paris, France, where he was studying photography.

Gobernantes de (1884 - 1931)

Don Angel Guirola
He ruled as First Appointed:
April 6 to August 21, 1884

Don Angel was born in Zacatecoluca Guirola, the August 15, 1826 and died in Santa Tecla, at 84 years of age, April 27, 1910.
His parents were: Maria Guirola Rafael (GMT) and Gertrudis de la Cotera and Gonzalez (El Salvador).

Don Angel Guirola married in New York in 1859 with Mrs. Cordelia Duke Alexander (Kingstown), born December 31, 1829, died in Santa Tecla, the January 3, 1920. Children of Don Angel Guirola: Adalberto who died bravely in the battlefields of Guatemala in 1906 to honor his memory, erected in the famous Santa Tecla orphanage that he named the child died heroically defending the homeland, Rafael Guirola Angel Guirola, Edward, Julia Guirola Batres, Lulu Guirola Guirola and Matilda.

Being very young Mr. Guirola left his parents' home in Guatemala to complete their education and seek his fortune.

San Vicente was elected Mayor in 1852, then settled in San Salvador, being elected deputy to the Legislature since 1866, in the city of Santa Tecla built a magnificent house where I live until his death.

Jose Rosales
Designated Third ruled as 18 al June 22, 1885

Jose Rosales was born in San Salvador, March 19, 1827 and died in that same city on April 6, 1891.
Were your parents. José Coronel Rosales Saen, of Spanish origin and his wife Josefa Herrador. He married Dona Carmen Ungo, who died June 21, 1896 and did not give offspring. Their marriage was not lucky.
Jose Rosales gave the presidency, the June 22, 1885, the head of the Revolution, General Francisco Menéndez.

On December 4, 1885, General Jose Menendez appoint roses, counselor of state, in view of being considered one of the nation's leading bankers.
Feeling Jose Rosales died without heirs and seeing his name and his property and advised by his cousin, Archbishop Antonio Adolfo Pérez y Aguilar signed his will, leaving as sole heir to the Hospital of San Salvador, for which the Hospital Hospital named for Rosales.

Jose Rosales left approximately $ 500,000, left a party to his wife and another part to the hospice for orphans. The first stone of the new Hospital was laid on April 9, 1891 and the building was completed in 1902, was inaugurated with the name of Hospital Rosales, July 13, 1902

On April 7, 1891, Jose Rosales died, his funeral being a true demonstration of grief.

General Fernando Figueroa
President of the Republic of El Salvador
Designated as a Second:
14 al 22 May 1885
As President
May 22 to June 18, 1885
As President of the Republic:
March 1, 1907 to 1st March 1911

General Ilobasco Fernando Figueroa was born in and died on June 16, 1919. General Figueroa married in 1878 to Miss Luz Rodriguez. They were his children: 3 males and 3 females, Maria Luisa Figueroa V. Castillo, Luz Figueroa V. Carlota de Avila and Figueroa.
General Figueroa Grandchildren: Dr. Fabio Castillo Figueroa, Luz Castillo Figueroa Paredes, Margoth Figueroa Castillo de Aguilar, María Luisa Castillo Gonzalez Figueroa, Ana Maria Figueroa Castillo Echeverria, Deputy Fernando Avila Figueroa, Dr. Alberto Avila Figueroa, Carmen Avila Fermina Avila Figueroa and Figueroa.

He ruled as president for resignation of Dr. Zaldivar.

In this short-lived cabinet is organized as follows:
1885 Government Cabinet
by renunciation were appointed:
General Minister, Dr. Rafael Ayala
Interior and Public Instruction Minister, Dr. Isidro F. Paredes
Minister of Finance and Marina, Dr. Domingo Lopez
Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs, Justice, Worship and Charity, Dr. Daniel Miranda.

General Francisco Menéndez
President of the Republic of El Salvador
Interim President:
June 22, 1885 to March 1, 1887
March 1, 1887 to June 22, 1890

General Francisco Menéndez was born in Ahuachapán on December 3, 1830 and Murray in San Salvador, June 22, 1890.
Were your parents. Eustaquio Jose Menendez and Gabriela Valdivieso, people of good family and possessed of some land that gave them an independent position and economic.
In 1858 he married Mrs. Menendez General Bonifacia Salazar.
At 41 years old in 1871 took an active part in the revolution that overthrew Dr. Francisco Dueñas, being Mayor of Ahuachapan.
At 55 years of age by General Menendez was appointed Provisional President of El Salvador on June 22, 1885, receiving the supreme power of Don Jose Rosales.

President of the Republic of El Salvador Provisional President:
June 22, 1890 March 1, 1891 a
As President of the Republic:
March 1, 1891 to June 10, 1894

Ezeta General Carlos was born in San Salvador on June 14, 1852 and died in Mazatlan, Mexico, March 21, 1903.
His parents were: General chose Ezeta (Vicenza) and Dona Asuncion de León Corleto. From this first marriage produced two sons, Carlos and Antonio.
Then the General chose Ezeta is remarried with a young lady named San Miguel Arguello.
General Carlos Ezeta was married to Miss Josefa Marroquín (Guatemala). Their children were: Charlotte Matilda, Emilia and Asuncion.
General Carlos Ezeta took part in the campaigns that the quarterback Gonzalez said in Honduras in 1872 and 1873, was wounded in action in Santa Barbara.
He immigrated to Costa Rica in 1875 and returned to El Salvador in 1876. After visiting the United States and Guatemala, returned in 1885 and took part in the battle against General Justo Rufino Barrios (who succumbed Chalchuapa)
He assumed power by overthrowing General Francisco Menendez June 22, 1890.

General Rafael Antonio Gutierrez
President of the Republic of El Salvador
As Interim President:
June 10, 1894 to 1st March 1895
As President of the Republic:
1st March 1895 a November 14, 1898

General Rafael Antonio was born Gutierrez, October 24, 1845 in the City of Ilobasco, Department of Cabañas, and died at 76 years old, January 9, 1921 at 10:00 pm in the Neighborhood San Jacinto.

His parents, a Spanish and his mother Dona Marcela Gutierrez. He was married to Miss Charlotte Mejía.
Their children were: Rafael Antonio Carlos, Charlotte, Tulio, Marcela, Rosa, Bernardo and Maria. Marcela was married with a son of General Fernando Figueroa. Colonel Jorge Tenorio (of grateful remembrance) was the son of Don Carlos Gutierrez and Maria Luisa Tenorio.
General Gutierrez was always an honest man and appreciated. Among the famous FORTY-FOUR stood far the June 10, 1894, after a bloody revolution took supreme power Gutierrrez General Rafael Antonio.

General Tomas Regalado
President of the Republic of El Salvador:
November 14, 1898 to March 1, 1899
March 1, 1899 to March 1, 1903

General Tomas Regalado was born in Santa Ana on November 7, 1861, and died July 11, 1906 (in the war with Guatemala) in the place called Lard.
His parents were: Tomas Regalado and Petrona Regalado Romero, both distinguished persons of the highest society. At 33 years of age by General Regalado was married to Miss Conception Gonzalez (Santiago Gonzalez Mariscal's daughter). From this marriage were born two sons: Tomás Regalado Gonzalez (of grateful remembrance) and Marisa Regalado Gonzalez (now deceased).

In early 1898, the situation in the country was somewhat uncertain. At that time a friend of General Regalado was Col. Jacinto Castro, 2nd Head of one of the main barracks in San Salvador called BARRACKS BURNED occupied the site where now stands the National Palace. Both the Colonel and other military Castro agreed that the only one who could save the situation was Regalado. Night before had been fired upon by General Regalado to remove it from the race to come.

On November 14, 1898, General Regalado was submitted to the quarters Burned alive all the troops General Regalado and from that moment arrived in the presidency of the Republic. Regalado was one of the conspirators on April 29, 1894 participated in the overthrow of Charles Ezeta within the movement called "The 44". On November 14, 1898, General Regalado overthrew President Rafael Antonio Gutierrez, Gutierrez who considered his best friend, and became president of the Republic. In 1899 he was elected constitutional president for a period of four years, Gutierrez never forgave him.

Entering its government declared amnesty for all political exiles. During his presidency established the Military Polytechnic School, began the construction of the National Theatre in Santa Ana, promoted the construction of railroads and created the Rural Police Mounted antecedendente National Guard.

Completed his term, General Regalado was appointed Minister of War, by his successor Pedro Jose Escalon. In 1906 the outbreak of war between El Salvador and Guatemala, was appointed commander of the Salvadoran troops who invaded Guatemala. During a battle on the site called "Lard", Regalado was seriously injured and died, June 11, 1906.

Don Pedro Jose Escalon
President of the Republic of El Salvador:
March 1, 1903 to 1st March 1907

Don Pedro Jose Escalon, was born in Santa Ana, March 25, 1847 and died in the same city, September 6, 1923.
Don Pedro Jose Escalon was the brother of Don Potenciano Step (Don's wife was Dona Concha Potenciano of steps was mother of Don Francisco Núñez Arrue and owned the land where the colony is located Step). Dr. Jose Escalona is the grandson of Don Pedro Jose Escalon. She married Pedro Jose Escalon in 1865 with Miss Elena Rodriguez 18 years of age and who died on December 3, 1921. From this union were born three rods: Dolores, Frederick and Peter. Step belonged to a family of landowners coffee department of Santa Ana During his presidency, he had to face a war with Guatemala. The war started, the June 9, 1906 when it was invaded Guatemalan territory by Salvadoran forces under the command of General Tomas Regalado. During the days between 11 and 17 June Intense fighting took place, one of whom died Gen. Regalado on the morning of June 11. The Salvadoran troops retreated to El Salvador. Subsequently signed the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Trade between Guatemala and El Salvador in October 1906.

Don Pedro Jose Escalon was for fun cockfighting, so in his time pitches cocks abounded in the capital. On 1 March the Salvadoran people elected him to President and Don Pedro Jose Escalon received the Supreme Command on March 1, 1903 by General Tomás Regalado.

During his government created the School of Commerce and Finance attached to the Central Institute in December 1906 and began construction of the National Palace and National Theatre of San Salvador, in addition to significantly increase the telegraph and telephone service by adding several hundred miles new telephone and telegraph lines, and telegraph stations building and the staff necessary for its operationalization and maintenance, and introduce the electric light service in the capital, San Salvador. At the end of his term in 1907, he left politics and lived in retirement in their farms, until his death.

Dr. Manuel Enrique Araujo
El Salvador:
March 1, 1911 to February 9, 1913

Dr. Manuel Enrique Araujo was born in Valley Condadillo, Department of Usulutan, the October 12, 1865 and died a criminal assault on February 9, 1913. The crime was in the park Bolivar (now Plaza Barrios) on 4 February the same year.

His parents were: Manuel Enrique Araujo y Juana Rodríguez de Araujo. Born in the village of Joy in Usulutan, within a landowning family of Portuguese descent, devoted to coffee cultivation. Dr. Araujo was baptized on October 22, 1865 at the Church of Tecapa (now joy) of Usulutan. His godfather was Carlos Gutierrez. Araujo studied medicine at the University of El Salvador after receiving his doctorate in 1891, he traveled to Europe to study surgery specialist. He was married to Doña Hortensia Araujo Lakes Peralta. Dr. Araujo capped his career as a doctor, having been one of the most successful students of Dr. Emilio Alvarez, specializing in surgery.

Dr. Araujo was presented as an official candidate in the elections of November 1910, with the support of outgoing President Fernando Figueroa. At age 46 he was elected President of El Salvador by majority vote. After being declared the winner, took office as president on March 1, 1911. During his government gave special attention to the Army. Many foreign military missions were hired to serve education and technical preparation of Salvadoran officers. In 1912 he founded the National Guard, for the organization of this security, it hired former officers of the Spanish Civil Guard whose image was organized in El Salvador as a rural police, in the period were created Araujo addition, magistrates in all municipalities, to ensure the rule of law throughout the national territory and established the Ministry of Agriculture to promote the cultivation of coffee. In 1911 he celebrated the centenary of the independence uprising of 1811, with the inauguration of the monument to the heroes on the Freedom Park in San Salvador and in 1912 enacted the current Flag and National Emblem.

On February 4, 1913 during a concert in the park San Salvador Bolivar (now Plaza Barrios), President Araujo was severely wounded with machetes by farmers Mulatilo Virgilio, Fermin Perez and Fabian Graciano. The president died five days later from his injuries. Never thoroughly investigated, the motives of the attackers, who were shot after a military trial.

Don Carlos Melendez
President of the Republic of El Salvador
As Interim President:
February 9, 1913 to August 29, 1914
As President of the Republic:
March 1, 1915 to December 21, 1918

Don Carlos Melendez, was born on February 1, 1861 and died at 58 years old, October 8, 1919 in the United States of America, where he had come two months after seeking to regain his health. His parents were Rafael Melendez, an honest man automatically tailor and Mercedes Ramirez Melendez (daughter of former President of the Republic of El Salvador Mr. Norberto Ramírez). Brothers Carlos Melendez, Rafael, Francisco, Guillermo (they are all signing Carlos Melendez and Hnos) holders of wit The Angel, other estates of the firm Meléndez: Mapalapa, Santa Barbara, San Juan del Gozo, and more. They were also brothers of Don Carlos Melendez, Jorge (owner of the Sugar Prussia and Venice and also President of El Salvador), Dona Leonor de Quiñones Molina, Dona Carmen Letona Meléndez and nun Sor. Don Carlos Meléndez he studied at the College who led the Spanish professor Fernando Velarde. He was married to Mrs. Sara Melendez Meza, had no descendants.

Carlos Melendez was the initiator of the period known in the history of El Salvador Meléndez-Quiñones Dynasty (1913-1927) period in which power remained in the hands of the members of this landowning family. Melendez was appointed the first president during the administration of Dr. Manuel Enrique Araujo. As Dr. Araujo and killed his resignation, the Vice President Onofre Duran, the Legislature appointed as interim president Carlos Melendez, working from February 9, 1913 to August 29, 1914, when it deposited the command the vice president Alfonso Quiñonez Molina, to stand as a candidate in presidential elections, in which he was elected, serving as Constitutional President of the Republic between March 1, 1915 and December 21, 1918, when he had to give up president for health reasons.

During his first term, Melendez attempted to continue the work of his predecessor, Dr. Araujo. In June 1913, he founded the National Police under the name "Body of General Security." Also a monument to the memory of President Araujo in the General Cemetery of San Salvador and remained the country's neutrality at the outbreak of the First World War. In his second government faced a humanitarian catastrophe, after the eruption of the Volcano of San Salvador, June 7, 1917.

In 1915, President Melendez opposed Briand-Chamorro Treaty, signed between Nicaragua and the United States, considering it was a violation of the sovereignty of El Salvador, Nicaragua to dispose of the territories of the Gulf of Fonseca, without consultation with El Salvador and Honduras also have rights to the Gulf Coast. This led his government to lodge an appeal with the Central American Court of Justice ruled in his favor on March 9, 1917 stating that Nicaragua must abstain from fulfilling the treaty signed on August 5 1914.Debido health problems, the Melendez president resigned before the end of the period of four years, who had been elected and had to travel to the United States to treat their disease. In that country died in 1919. His remains returned to the country, brought on board the warship Cleveland navy of the United States, arriving at the Port of Liberty at noon on November 5, 1919, they were greeted with the shooting of 21 cañonazos.Fue buried in the cemetery.

Doctor Alfonso Quiñonez Molina
President of the Republic of El Salvador As Commissioned by deposit that made him president:
August 29, 1914 to March 1, 1919
As President of the Republic:
March 1, 1923 to 1st March 1927

Dr. Alfonso Quiñones Molina was born in Suchitoto, on January 11, 1874 and died in San Salvador, May 22, 1950.
His parents were: Mr. and Mrs. Lucio Aurelia Molina Quiñones Quiñones.
He married Miss Eleanor Melendez (sister of Don Carlos and Jorge Meléndez, former Presidents of the Republic of El Salvador). From this union was born a daughter named Mercedes Quiñones Meléndez (currently live). In 1897, Dr. Quinones was appointed Deputy Medical General Hospital, San Salvador. On March 4, 1914, the National Assembly proclaimed the First Appointed as President of the Republic was third substitute member of the Board of the asylum, Professor of Hygiene and Therapeutics, National University; Alternate Director of the Faculty of Medicine and Member of the then Second and Chief of venereal prophylaxis, led the Asylum and Asylum Sara, where did much good in these centers.
In 1909, the Supreme Government of the Republic conferred the credentials of delegates to the Fourth International Sanitary Conference, verified in San Jose Costa Rica.

Jorge Melendez
President of the Republic of El Salvador:
March 1, 1919 to March 1, 1923

Jorge Melendez was born in San Salvador, April 15, 1871 and died in the same city on November 22, 1953. His parents were: Rafael Melendez, an honest man automatically tailor the distinguished lady married to Mercedes Ramirez, (daughter of Mr. Norberto Ramirez, who was President of El Salvador from September 20, 1840 to January 7, 1841, from Nicaraguan origin, and was also President of the Republic of Honduras).

Brothers Jorge Meléndez, Rafael, Francisco, Guillermo, Carmen Letona Meléndez and nun Sor, Carlos was President of El Salvador: Feb. 9 de 1913-29 Aug. 1914 and March 1, 1915 to December 21. 1918, and Eleanor (married to Dr. Alfonso Quiñones Molina was President of the Republic of El Salvador: 29 Aug. 1914 to 1st March 1915, December 21, 1918 to March 1, 1919 and 1st March 1923 to March 1st 1927).

Don George was married to Miss Tula Mazzini, fathered 3 children: George (died in his youth), Maria de los Angeles and Richard.

Jorge Don Mills owned the Prussian and Venice, Jorge Melendez received the President of the Republic of his brother Dr. Alfonso Quiñonez Molina, 1st March 1919 as vice president was Dr. Quiñonez.

Dr. Pio Romero Bosque
He ruled as President of the Republic:
March 1, 1927 to February 28 of 131

Dr. Pio Romero Bosque descended from noble lineage, a direct descendant of a distinguished man of Forest Cayetano liberal affiliations, which took a direct part in the events of 1858, the Minister of War, Don Cayetano Forest was of Spanish origin.
He was married twice: his first marriage had three children: Juan José Bosque eminent jurist, who stood out as a judge and senator, and Don Cayetano Forest (son), a physician who settled in San Jose, Costa Rica and Mrs. Rosario Forest, married with Don Serapio Romero.

Don Cayetano Forest contracted second wife Dona Teresa Gallardo, sister of dr. Manuel Gallardo, medical illustrations, this marriage had two children: Teresa who married Juan Mata and Mercedes who was the wife of Mr. Samuel San Martín.

The parents of dr. Pío Romero were: Mrs. Rosario and Don Serapio Romero Bosque.
Don Pio was born in Suchitoto in 1860, and died in Nicaragua on December 10, 1935.

Don Pio's wife was Mrs. Amparo Molina, daughter of Don Francisco Molina, Zacatecoluca
In 1892 he was elected deputy to the National Assembly, Honorable, then the Supreme Court, appointed him Judge of 1st 2nd Instance, deputy department of San Salvador in 1889 and few months after the District Judge in Zacatecoluca property position he held for two years.

In the government of the presidents Jorge Meléndez (1919-1923) and Alfonso Quiñonez Molina (1923-1927) he served as War Minister and Minister of Interior.

With the support of family Meléndez-Quiñones was elected President of the Republic. He took office on 1 March 1927, amid a climate of political repression. During his presidency was the 1929 crash, which involved a dramatic fall in coffee prices and caused a social crisis in the country when even cut coffee coffee.

Faced with the deteriorating economic situation came the first groups of workers and the strikes occurred. In 1930 he founded the Salvadoran Communist Party. Romero Bosque harshly repressed the protests but at the end of its mandate, held elections deemed free and handed over power to the winning candidate, Arturo Araujo on 1 March 1931.

His policies on land ownership were an element that triggered the peasant uprising of 1932

Engineer Arturo Araujo
He ruled as President of the Republic:
1st March to December 2, 1931

Engineer Arturo Araujo was born in Santa Tecla, in 1878, and died at the Military Hospital of San Salvador, December 1, 1967.
His parents were: Doctor Eugenio Araujo (Minister of Finance of the General Administration of General Tomas Regalado and Doña Enriqueta de Araujo Fajardo).
He was married twice: first with an American lady, who had a daughter named Helen, and the second time with Rosa Amelia Guzmán de Araujo, with whom he fathered a son named Armando Araujo.
The Engineer Araujo was a man of great culture and prominent historian, studied in Britain where he met the social democratic ideology of the British Labour Party. In 1917, after the earthquake was very helpful in rebuilding the city of Armenia. For the presidential campaign of 1930, he founded the Labour Party in El Salvador and won the support of a teacher and writer Alberto Masferrer. He took office as constitutional president on 1 March 1931, for a period of four years, amid the global economic crisis that followed the great crash of 1929. His policies on land ownership was one of the reasons for the peasant uprising of 1932. Nine months into his presidency, a group of soldiers in the country supported by the coffee oligarchy joined forces and overthrew the government of Araujo, December 2, 1931, and created the Civic Board Military handed over power to Gen. Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, who then served as Vice President and War Minister of the Republic. The Engineer Araujo died in the Military Hospital of San Salvador, December 1, 1967.

Made Government
December 2 through 4 of the same month of 1931

They formed the Military Directory:

National Guard:
Colonel Joaquin Valdes. Born in San Salvador on November 22, 1906 and died in that same city on August 30, 1957.
Colonel Juan Vicente Vidal. (Born in Atiquizaya on January 22, 1885).

First Regiment of Infantry:
Captain Manuel Urbina. (Born in San Antonio de la Cruz, Chalatenango, the 1 st September 1903. I died).
Visitation Captain Antonio Pacheco (born in Santa Ana on July 2, 1901).
Lieutenant Joaquin Castro Canizales. (Born Resume on November 7, 1902). Work in Diario Latino.

First Regiment of Artillery:
Lt. Carlos Rodriguez. (Born Metapán the November 4, 1906).
Sub Lieutenant Julio Canas. (Born in San Salvador on December 29, 1909 and died on December 20, 1960 in San Miguel).

First Machine Gun Regiment:
Lieutenant José Alonso Huezo. (Guayabal born in the July 16, 1909).
Lieutenant Miguel Hernández Saldaña. (Born in Zacatecoluca on August 10, 1907).

Lieutenant Hector Montalvo. (Born in San Ignacio, Chalatenango, June 1, 1908).

Ministry of War
Colonel Osmin Aguirre y Salinas. (Born in San Miguel, December 24, 1889, and died while being taken to military hospital, shot dead on July 12, 1977, in front of his home. He died at the age of 82 years).

Military Aviation:
Juan Ramón mon lieutenant. (Born in Santa Ana on April 15, 1903).

This directory Militar de facto governor since December 2, 1931 to April of the same month and year that gave the supreme command to Vice President and Minister of War General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez then. This movement gave ground military regime Araujo. Engineer Arturo Araujo fled and left power.

Gobernantes de (1850 - 1884)

Don Doroteo Vasconcelos
He ruled as president: February 7, 1848 to January 26, 1850 As President February 4, 1850 to January 12, 1851 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in Sensuntepeque, the February 6, 1803, and died in St. Vincent in March 1883. His parents were Don Manuel de Jesus Iraheta Vasconcelos and Gertrudis Valley. On March 5, 1828, when civil war ripped through the nation Vasconcelos became Minister General and Deputy and Chairman of the Federal Congress, 1830.

Fiscal War was in 1832 and the political chief of the Guatemalan province of Sacatepequez. The following year he returned to El Salvador where he had considerable interest and then appointed political chief in 1836. Vasconcelos was a Liberal Unionist and accompany the president convinced Morazán to exile in Panama in 1840, remaining with him until the tragic end of Morazan. Then he embarked for Europe, where he remained three years, returning to the country in late 1845.

On April 29, 1840 came to Puerto Caldera, where he landed, remaining until the tragic death of General Morazan. Then he embarked for Europe, where he stayed 3 years making the country in late 1845.

On December 4, 1847 took effect, having the Presidential elections were won by Mr. Vasconcelos for the biennium 1848-1849. At the end of his term leaves the power to Ramon Rodriguez, who returns four days later for a further period of two years. During his government, repatriated from Costa Rica, the remains of General Morazan, and was buried with state honors in the cemetery of San Salvador. Vasconcelos gave asylum to the Guatemalan liberals who had been exiled by the conservative government of Rafael Carrera, which led to hostilities between El Salvador and Guatemala. In 1851, the governments of El Salvador and Honduras signed an alliance against Carrera, the allied army invaded Guatemala but was defeated at the battle of La Arada (2 February 1851). After the military defeat, President Vasconcelos resigned and retired from politics.

Mr. Francisco Dueñas
He ruled as a Senator: January 12 to March 1, 1851
As Senator Appointed: May 3, 1851 to January 30, 1852
As President of the Republic: February 1, 1852 to February 1, 1854
As Vice-President: 1 al 12 February 1856
As Vice-President: May 12 to July 19, 1856
As Interim President: October 26, 1863 to February 1, 1865
As President of the Republic: February 1, 1865 to April 12, 1871 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in San Salvador, December 3, 1810 and died in San Francisco California on March 4, 1884.

His remains were brought to Santa Tecla in 1886 and buried in the City since awarded as a testimonial of gratitude to his memory. His parents were: José Miguel Díaz Dueñas and Mrs. Secundina, spouses of modest lineage. He was married to Mrs. Teresa Dardanus, before the widow of Orellana, February 12, 1866. Blessed this marriage, the illustrious Bishop Tomas Pineda and Zaldaña. Their children were: Francis, Carlos and Miguel Dueñas. The children from his first marriage his wife were: Paul and Antonia Orellana.

He studied law at the University of San Carlos de Guatemala, which became a lawyer in 1836. In 1837 he was elected to the Congress of the United Provinces of Central America. After being dissolved the federation in 1841, El Salvador declared an independent republic and soberanala. For three decades (1840-1870), Francisco Dueñas active in politics in the country as a representative of the Conservative party, which defended the interests of the Catholic Church, intended to maintain many of the colonial institutions in the new independent company and opposed Central American Union. Dueñas was always a rival liberal political leader and as an ally Gerardo Barrios Guatemalan President Rafael Carrera.

In 1837, he was elected Federal Member of Parliament, of which the following year he was secretary. He was appointed Secretary General of the Office from August 1839 to February 1840. He resigned in protest to see Morazán bring the war to Guatemala. When it came to the presidency by General Joaquín Guzmán Eufracio, Universal Dueñas was appointed Minister of the Cabinet, which remained high office in February 1845 to February 1846. On 15 April the same year, Mr. Dueñas was appointed Member of the Board of Public Instruction, which replaced the old Cloister of doctors, from that time devoted to exercise chairs at the Faculty of Law at the University.

In January 1850 he was rector of the University and then in September the same year General Minister. Dueñas elected Senator, was nominated for the Presidency First Designate receiving power as a Senator on January 12, 1851, for having taken the lead Army President Dr. Vasconcelos. On February 26, 1851, Congressman Eugene Oyarsun calls on the President's meeting also be processed Vasconcelos also Senator Graduate Acting Ruler Dueñas. This process was not accepted. On March 1, 1851 Mr. Dueñas, handed over power to Mr. Felix Quiroz. On May 3, 1851 Mr. Dueñas was the second time the Supreme Power Designated as a Senator of Mr. Felix Quiroz. In June 1851 the President Dueñas make regulations for election of deputies to the National Constituent Assembly to meet in Chinandega, the reorganization of Central America.

He ruled again as interim president of the May 3, 1851 to January 30, 1852 and as President's constitutional February 1, 1852 to February 1, 1854. Elected vice president for the period 1856-1858, was in charge of the government of May 12 to July 19, 1856.

In 1859, his opponent Gerardo Barrios, assumed the presidency, and the following year, Dueñas went into exile in Guatemala. In 1863, war broke out between Guatemala and El Salvador, due to attempts to restore the Union Barrios Central. On July 10, 1863, Guatemalan troops entered Santa Ana Gerardo Barrios took refuge in San Salvador, which was besieged by the army of Race to flight Barrios, October 26, 1863. After taken the capital, the conservative Salvadoran proclaimed provisional president Francisco Dueñas. In 1864 he drafted a new constitution that included the principles of conservative ideology.

On February 1, 1865, Duenas took over as president. During his last government, established Dueñas Flag and National Emblem that lasted until 1912, maintained cordial relations with the Church, began construction of the National Palace in San Salvador, boost the cultivation of coffee, and made improvements in the ports of Libertad, La Unión and Acajutla to facilitate foreign trade, while violently suppressed their opponents liberals. In mid-1865, contained an uprising Duenas led by former President Gerardo Barrios, who was captured and shot. Finally, the liberal Santiago Gonzalez led a coup that overthrew the April 12, 1871.

After being deposed, he was jailed briefly. Upon his release, he was exiled to the United States where he lived until his death.

Colonel José María San Martín
President of the Republic of El Salvador: Designated as a senator: 30 January to 1 February 1852
President: February 15 to September 26, 1854 November 13, 1854 to February 1, 1856 (HONDURAS)

Born in Nacaome, Honduras on March 29, 1811 and died of Cholera Morbus, Chalatenango road when he drove to that city on August 12, 1857. His parents were: Colonel Joaquín de San Martín, and Dona Joaquina Fugon Honduras (Honduras).

On January 30, 1852 was a day Ruler to fill a formula. On February 15, 1854 was the supreme command of Don Vicente Gomez. In July 1854 the President of San Martín decree establishing the National University and Assumption College in San Vicente, pointing to the August 10 for the opening of classes.

August 8, 1854 Foundation of the city of Nueva San Salvador. August 9, 1854 Minutes of City of San Salvador requesting the transfer of the city of San Salvador to the plain of Santa Tecla. Sign the record: Borja Bustamante, Governor, Francisco Escolán Mayor first, antonio Lievano, Mayor seconds; Aldermen Ambrose Mendez, Tomás Palomo, Francisco Garay, Rafael Serrano, Irenaeus Ticas, Trustee Anastasio and Angel Paredes.

On September 26, 1854 President José María San Martín Coronel placed the supreme command of the vice president, General Mariano Hernandez. On November 29, 1854 at the Hacienda Amayo dies at 84 years old Colonel Joaquin San Martín, the father of President José María San Martín.

On February 26, 1885, President decrees declaring San Martín current collection laws made by the priest Isidro Menéndez in the 10 books of which it consists.

On 1 February 1856 President St. Martin deposited the Supreme Command in Senator Mr. Francisco Dueñas for completing his term. From August 2 to October 8, 1856 served the country, Colonel San Martin as Minister of Finance and War. In 1857 he was elected senator, and is also the year President of the House and referred to as the Presidency of the Republic. Also the President Rafael Campo was appointed on 23 March of that year Army General Commander, important position he held a few months.

The troops returned from Nicaragua in 1857 had waged war against the filibusters came infected with the plague of Cholera Morbus, on his farm refugióse San Cristobal, north of San Salvador. There he reached the fatal, killing two of his daughters the victims of this epidemic, crushed and infected by this plague died on the way to Chalatenango on August 12, 1857.

Don Vicente Gomez
He ruled as Senator Desigo 1 to February 15, 1854 (HONDURAS)

Born in Honduras.

On 1 February 1854 was the Supreme Command of the President Mr. Francisco Dueñas, who had finished his term.

Senator Don Vicente Gomez received in the absence of Appointed Colonel José María San Martín popularly which had been declared by the Legislature.

Don Rafael Campo
President of the Republic of El Salvador: February 12 to May 12, 1856 July 19, 1856 to February 1, 1858

(EL SALVADOR) He was born in Sonsonate, October 24, 1813, and died at the Port of Acajutla on 1 March 1890. His parents were Pedro Perez Campo and Harp, and Dona Juana Maria Pomar.

The Republican Party nominated Don Rafael Campo (even against their will) as President of El Salvador.

Was victorious in the elections and dated January 30, 1856 was declared President-elect. Despite his resignation was forced to accept the highest office in which he received the February 12, 1856. In this short period he gave a big push to rebuild the destroyed town of San Salvador. It began talks with the other Central American countries to counter the filibuster invasion.

On April 8, 1856 Field Chairman established a board of finance, to take charge of public works contracts, procurement of arms and clothing for the army. On May 12, 1856 President Rafael Campo Supreme Command deposited in the Vice-President Mr. Francisco Dueñas. On July 19, 1856 assumes command gift Rafael Campo Supreme, which had deposited in Mr. Dueñas.

On February 27, 1857 the General Assembly appointed shall appoint the President to exercise the executive power to Messrs.. Colonel José María San Martín, General Gerardo Barrios and Manuel Rafael Reyes. In November 1857, the Government of El Salvador promulgated the Code of Civil Procedure, Criminal and Judicial and formulas.

On January 25, 1858. The General Assembly declares popularly elected President for the period 1858-1859 Mr. Miguel Santin del Castillo as Vice President and General Eufracio Guzman. On 1 February 1858, President Rafael Campo Supreme Power Delivery Senator Lorenzo Zepeda.

Don Lorenzo Zepeda
He ruled as Senator Desiganado: 1 to February 7, 1858 (EL SALVADOR)

He was born in Sonsonate. His term was one of transition and he received the supreme command of Don Rafael Campo and was given the charge to be absent from the capital the President and Vice-President-elect, General Miguel Santin Eufrasio Castle and General Guzman.

On February 7, 1858 gave the Government the President-elect Miguel Santin General del Castillo.


Captain General Gerardo Barrios
President of the Republic of El Salvador: Appointed Senator ruled as: June 24 to September 18, 1858
Appointed Senator ruled as: March 12, 1859 to February 1, 1860
As President of the Republic: February 1 to December 16, 1860
As President of the Republic: February 7, 1861 to October 26, 1863. (EL SALVADOR)

The birthplace of Captain General Gerardo Barrios is disputed, some say he came into the world's population Cacahuatique (now Ciudad Barrios), Department of San Miguel, others say that the place known as La Poza de Juana, the valley Izcanal, jurisdiction of San Juan Lempa, today Nuevo Edén de San Juan, being the date of his birth on October 3, 1813 and some say the September 24, 1813 the same year.

He was the son of Jose Maria Barrios, who in turn descended from Pedro Joaquin Barrios was born in France of Spanish parents and Margarita Avila Cisneros, born in San Miguel and home along with Spanish. The mother of Captain General was was Petrona Barrios Barrios Espinoza, a native of San Miguel.

The sisters of General Barrios were: Petronella, Maria Josefa, and Onicéfora.

Petronilla married with General Trinidad Cabanas and Maria Josefa Ignacio Díaz. The baptism of the Captain General Barrios was in the parish of Sesori the October 24, 1813. His godfather was Don Tomas Castillo. Barrios General Captain was of medium height, light brown, big eyes and black, bushy eyebrows, high forehead with a mustache and beard, broad shoulders. He had a lame default. It was discreet in speech, sincere and loyal friends. He liked the colorful uniforms. Military was a calling that was entirely to the country.

Gen. Barrios learned their first letters with his grandfather (Pedro Joaquin Barrios) and a French family friend, who taught Spanish grammar, geography, and history of America and Europe, mathematics, astronomy and physics. Barrios forged in high ideals among which stand out: the respect dignidadhumana, severe concepts of law and order, justice and freedom as then understood by the enlightened liberal thought. Barrios's family possessed large estates, the most important, valuable estates "The Holy Spirit", "Candelaria", "San Jorge", "Managuarias" and "Carmen." Alli is grown jiquilite indigo or indigo, coffee, cocoa. That helped to magnify his great fortune.

As a young woman was secretary of the Municipality of Cacahuatique (Now Ciudad Barrios). Military later became the battlefield alongside General Francisco Morazan and also began to appear in politics. He took part in the overthrow of José María Cornejo, in the battles of Mixco, San Miguelito and Guatemala, as in the Holy Spirit and Perulapía and in 1840 in Decision-Guatemala. At that time prevailed in Central America two ideological currents that fought for the predominance of their ideas. The Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. Barrios chose the Liberals, knowing that their ranks could help vindicate nationhood.

Resolved General Race to replace Barrios administration on the other hand will be favorable, again invaded the territory of El Salvador, occupying Chalchuapa, having defeated the forces of El Salvador in Izalco and Sonsonate. The Salvadoran forces stationed in Santa Ana revolted and proclaimed Provisional President Brigadier Santiago Gonzalez, and although this boss wanted to terms with race, he attacked the Salvadorans 3 and 4 July (1863), took over the square and 10 of the same year was proclaimed provisional president Dr. Francisco Dueñas. Guatemalan and Nicaraguan forces laid siege to San Salvador Barrios fought bravely, from September 29 to October 26 (1863), that with few troops broke the siege and retired by San Miguel, La Union for engaging in Panama ( November 8, 1863). Many of the defeated were put to the sword

Cabañas San Miguel revolted and proclaimed President General Barrios, passing from there to La Union, where he was defeated (May 29, 1865). Barrios was in Panama and sailed on the schooner "Manuela Planas" traveling to El Salvador, but lightning destroyed the mast of the ship and sank, he took refuge in Corinto (Nicaragua) was made prisoner and taken to Leon in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan government gave it to Commissioner El Salvador, on condition that ensures that the prisoner's life, but unfortunately it did not. Siguiósele trial in San Salvador Barrios and considerable risk in the uprising of Cabañas, despite opposition from the auditor of War and the protest of the Prosecutor Don Luciano Hernandez, who ripped the clip and resigned by the injustice of the proceedings, Barrios , was sentenced to death.

At 3 a.m. was taken to the cemetery of San Salvador, where he was executed on August 29, 1865. Passing through El Calvario, where they lived their faithful supporters, said: "The calvareños sleep, and I'll die!" It is said that he took out his handkerchief and wiped his forehead with it and handed it to his brother Ansaldi, saying: "Last I remember my poor Adelaide"

His last words were: "I have been vain, but my vanity has served for the growth of El Salvador. I have been ambitious, I am and I will be up in the afterlife. You are not going to kill an ordinary man, to anyone. No, They'll kill a statesman who has spent most of his life to the greatness of their country. I chase my shadow and the Salvadoran people one day avenge me ... "

General Miguel Santin Castle
President of the Republic of El Salvador: February 7 to June 24, 1858
President of the Republic: September 18, 1858 to January 19, 1859 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in San Vicente, February 7, 1858, Sen. President Don Lorenzo Zepeda, delivers the supreme command to the President-elect, General Miguel Santin del Castillo.

In May 1858 President Miguel Santin Castle establishes a Military Academy in San Salvador to teach tactics of artillery, infantry and cavalry.

On June 24, 1858 President Miguel Santin Castle, feeling ill placed the supreme command in the Second Appointed General Gerardo Barrios.

General Joaquín Guzmán Eufrasio
Vice ruled: October 25, 1844 to February 16, 1845
Vice ruled: April 25, 1845 to February 1, 1846
Vice ruled: January 19 February 15, 1859 (COSTA RICA)

General Eufrasio Joaquin Guzman, was born in Carthage, Republic of Costa Rica. He was the father of Doña Adelaida Barrios Guzman, wife of Captain Gerardo Barrios.

He received the power of General Francisco Malespín the May 9, 1844. His transition period was. He asked the Assembly to decree the necessary resources to defend the state.

On June 16, 1844 gives the Government General Francisco Malespín. For the second time the command receives Supreme General.



Don José María Peralta (EL SALVADOR)
Appointed Senator ruled as: February 15 to March 12, 1859 December 16, 1860 to February 7, 1861

Don José María Peralta was born in San Salvador in December 1807.

On February 15, 1859 General Eufracio Joaquin Guzman, deposited the Supreme Command in Senator Jose Maria Peralta. And on the same date Mr. Peralta named Military Commander of the Republic to the General Gerardo Barrios.

On March 3, 1859 the musicians under the leadership of the Military Band Musician, Antonio Tortola, take over the headquarters of Santo Domingo (today the National Library) and stores of war. At the sharp should join the garrison of Casa Mata, Santa Tecla and Cojutepeque people, they were frustrated aid, the Colonel Commandant of the square Eusebio Bracamonte, assisted by Col. Santiago Gonzalez recovered the barracks. The insurrection was to restore the presidency to General Miguel Santin del Castillo, who had been deposed by the military commander, General Gerardo Barrios. General Santiago Delgado was taken as head of the insurrection.

On March 12, 1859 Sen. President Jose Maria Peralta, deposits Command Supreme Commander General Military Barrios.El December 16, 1860 Supreme given command of the President General Gerardo Barrios, who is leaving the Government on deposit Jose María Peralta by President Barrios have to make a visit to Guatemala.

Don José María Peralta died in San Salvador on December 6, 1883.

Mariscal Santiago González
He was President of the Republic of El Salvador: April 12, 1871 to January 30, 1872
As President of the Republic: January 30, 1872 to May 10, 1872
As President of the Republic: July 9, 1872 to February 1, 1876 (Guatemala)

The Mariscal Santiago Gonzalez was born in Zacapa, Guatemala, July 25, 1818 and died in San Salvador on August 1, 1887.

Marshal Gonzales married in San Salvador on March 1, 1866 to Miss Fortis Soledad, who was 21 years, whose descendants are the masters Regalado Duenas of the high society of San Salvador. On February 21, 1862 First Appointed to be dominated by the Presidency of the Republic and President of the Legislature from 1862 to 1863.

Don Andres Valle
President of the Republic of El Salvador: February 1 to May 1, 1876 (EL SALVADOR)

Don Andres Valle was born in Santa Ana on November 30, 1833 and died in the same city, June 28, 1888. His parents were: Don Fernando Valley, Peninsular de Santander, who had a grown-made capital in trade and agriculture, married to Dona Transit Santa Ana Rodriguez, Creole from a distinguished family and also with big business.

Deputy to the Constituent Assembly of 1872-1873, was elected senator from Santa Ana in 1874, the following year he was Vice-President of the Upper House and Chairman of the Legislature.

In 1875 he was also nominated as First appointed to the chair. General Gonzalez gave the Presidency of the Republic on February 1, 1876 to Don Andres Valley.

Dr. Rafael Zaldivar
President of the Republic of El Salvador: Interim President: May 1, 1876 to February 1, 1880
President: February 1, 1880 to April 6, 1884
President: August 21, 1884 to May 14, 1885 (EL SALVADOR)

Dr. Rafarl Zaldívar was born in San Alejo, Department of the Union and died in Paris on March 2, 1903 and his remains were brought and buried in the cemetery of San Salvador. His parents were: Mr. and Mrs. Antonio Zaldivar Apolonio Lazo. Dr. Zaldívar married on August 25, 1858 with Mrs Sara War Potosi, Nicaragua, who was born on October 29, 1840 and died in San Salvador on September 15, 1911.

He was Professor of Medicine and Vice-Rector of the University of El Salvador. Diplomat as Minister Plenipotentiary to Prussia in 1869, occupied in 1870 the Ministries of Education and War while presiding over the National Assembly.

In January 1866 he was appointed Vice-Rector of the University and professor at the Faculty of Medicine. His influence social, political scientist and was felt and his house was soon the center of social life. He practiced with disinterest.

In 1867 he was appointed to the Board of Public Instruction, in 1868, was appointed protophysician's Office, Minister Plenipotentiary at the court of Prussia in 1869 and Minister of State in the Office of Public Instruction and War in 1870, also in 1870 and 1871 held the highest position of Chairman of the legislature.

Being ousted President Dueñas in 1871, Dr. Zaldivar had to emigrate from the country established in San Jose in Costa Rica, where he enjoyed a career as a physician and established a pharmacy.

On May 1, 1876, Dr. Rafael Zaldivar was the Supreme Command as provisional president. He was appointed interim President of El Salvador in 1876 after the war with Guatemala that led to the fall of Andrés del Valle, shortly after being elected (in May) and for all. During his government enacted laws extinction ejidos and communal lands (1881-1882) which involved the expropriation of the lands of indigenous communities. Voyages to America, Spain, UK and France.

Along with Guatemala and Honduras proposed the creation of a Central American Republic, but when in February 1885, Guatemalan President Justo Rufino Barrios proclaimed the restoration of the regional union by force and declared commander of Central America, was very adverse reactions in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The Salvadoran government announced its opposition to the claims of Barrios and between El Salvador, Costa Rica and Nicaragua established a defensive alliance, which won the support of Mexico.

To implement its plans, Barrios invaded El Salvador in March 1885, while troops from Costa Rica and Nicaragua are preparing to deal with Honduras. However, the attempted Barrios ended suddenly, as the Guatemalan President died in the battle of Chalchuapa, shortly after his troops invaded El Salvador. However, shortly after Rafael Zaldivar was overthrown and had to leave the country and go into exile in France

Gobernantes de (1836 - 1850)

Don Diego Vigil
He ruled as Supreme Head: 1 February 1836 to May 23, 1837 June 7, 1837 to January 6, 1838 (HONDURAS)

Don Diego Vigil and cocaine (Tegucigalpa, 1799 - Granada, Nicaragua, January 10, 1845), son of Jose Fernandez Josefa Vigil cocaine, was Supreme Commander of Honduras June 30, 1828 to December 4, 1829, he was Head El Salvador's Supreme February 1, 1836 to May 23, 1837 and June 7, 1837 to January 6, 1838 and president of the federation from 1838 to 1839.

Was imposed as Supreme Head of El Salvador, by General Francisco Morazan, who was a relative. During his administration, appeared in El Salvador Cholera Morbus, instilling fear among its inhabitants, this plague was brought by pilgrims returning from Esquipulas. In March 1836 the Salvadoran territory drove the worthy General Degree and Nicolas Espinoza and he withdrew his title of Hero of the Fatherland. For reasons of Cholera Morbus plague, the government suspended all payments, except for public employees, for all income served to combat the epidemic. In January 1837, cholera morbus spans all populations of the Republic of El Salvador.

On March 8, 1837, the Legislature enacts: Budget of Expenses of State of El Salvador this year, the sum of 85,028 pesos. It also authorizes the introduction of water to San Miguel, the town of Moncagua. For the sake of cholera morbus, the Supreme Government decrees boards of health in the headwaters of the Departments. The day May 23, 1837 Indian uprising breaks out in Zacatecoluca and Resume robbing and murdering. On the same day the Supreme Power delivery to Don Timoteo Menéndez.

Returns as the supreme commander on June 7, 1837. In June 1837 Santa Ana explodes in a Revolutionary Movement, but is stifled. The Government decreed amnesty for all those involved in revolutionary movements. On January 6, 1838 gave the presidency to Don Timoteo Menéndez.

On April 8, 1840 Diego Vigil and Francisco Morazan sailed from El Salvador to Costa Rica and Panama. After the shooting of Morazán September 15, 1842 in San Jose, Costa Rica, he settled in Granada, Nicaragua, where he remained until his death in 1845.

Don Timoteo Menendez
As Vice-Chief May 23 to June 7, 1837 6 enrofloxacin, 1838 to May 23, 1939

(EL SALVADOR) Don Timoteo Menéndez was born in Ahuachapán. He received the supreme power of Don Diego Vigil. During these days when I touch rule continued the fight against the epidemic of Cholera Morbus, put down an insurrection of the natives of Zacatecoluca and Cojutepeque who attacked the San Vicente guardición, so that suspended constitutional guarantees in the departments of Cuscatlan and San vicente.

Don Timoteo Menéndez received the supreme command of Don Diego Vigil on January 6, 1838. On February 24, 1838 the Legislature enacted merge into a single municipality, Asuncion and Dolores Izalco, the name of Villa Izalco. During this second period of the State Government was invaded by Guatemalan forces, commanded by General Rafael Carrera and then by combined forces of the Governments of Honduras and Nicaragua. These latter were defeated by General Morazán in the battle of the Holy Spirit.

On October 28, 1838, General Rafael Carrera, commanding 600 men and 200 horses invaded the State of El Salvador, taking the cities of Santa Ana and Ahuachapán and after committing atrocities with a Salvadoran removed Chiquimula, General Carrera defeated Morazán in Chiquimula, taking prisoners and munitions of war.

On February 23, 1839, forces of Honduras and Nicaragua invade the territory of El Salvador and the Government of El Salvador Don Timoteo Menéndez appointed General Francisco Morazan, General in Chief of the Salvadoran army and April 6, 1839 the same year, was held Battle of "The Holy Spirit" by which the forces were defeated Honduran and Nicaraguan. During this administration sr. Menendez, of Legislative Decree of April 22, 1839, prohibited in El Salvador cut the circulation of coins and weights of four pieces called maquiquinas and Vlachs.

On 23 May of that 1839 gives the Supreme Power Dr Don Timoteo Menéndez and Colonel Antonio José Cañas.

General Francisco Morazan
Interim Chief ruled as: April 3 to May 13, 1832. As Commander in Chief: July 11, 1839 to February 16, 1840 (HONDURAS)

General Francisco Morazan was born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras on October 3, 1792, was shot at 50 years old in San Jose, Costa Rica on September 15, 1842.

His parents were: Don Eusebio Morazán (Honduras) and Mrs. Guadalupe Quezada (Honduras). His brothers Benito and Marcelina. Benito followed an ecclesiastical career. General Morazan married to Dona Maria Josefa Lasteri Naughty Widow (Honduras) on December 30, 1825. From his marriage General Morazan had a daughter, Adela, this lady was married to Don Ulloa Cruz (Honduras) and settled in El Salvador. There are still descendants of this family Ulloa Morazán, which are highly valued in society.

The General will dwell had two illegitimate children whom he wanted and protected during his lifetime, these were General José Antonio Rui, who accompanied him on his campaigns and Francisco Morazan Moncada, who was your favorite and who conducted his "famous" Testament few moments before being shot. The attack by forces of Guatemala Comayagua, Morazán fought but no military rank, being the soul of the resistance. On April 3, 1832 General Morazán took the city of San Salvador, Guatemala sending prisoners to Don Jose Maria Cornejo, the Supreme Commander with his cabinet and other officials. On May 13 of that year gave the Supreme Command of Colonel Joaquin San Martín.

On July 11, 1839 General Morazán returned to take possession of the state. And give the Chief Colonel Dr. Antonio José Cañas. During his tenure as President suffocated several internal upheaval and faced the invading armies of Honduras and Nicaragua, in February of 1839 invaded the territory of El Salvador. On September 25, 1839 was celebrated the Battle of San Pedro Perulapán. General Francisco Morazan with 800 Salvadoran men defeated Honduran and Nicaraguan forces totaling 2,000 men commanded by General Francisco Ferrera and General Degree General Manuel Espinosa Nicolas Quijano. When left to flee the battlefield in one hundred seventy-five dead and 48 wounded. The Salvadoran Government and people keep an eternal memory of this defender of the American Cause and as a tribute to his memory by Decree No. 55 of September 1939 was ordered to put the bust of General Francisco Morazan in the Cerro del Campanario San Pedro Perulapan and in February 1957 by Decree No. 2325 was declared National Monument "THE HILL OF THE BELFRY" the city of San Pedro Perulapán in honor of arms by the victory obtained Morazanistas in September 1839.

General Francisco Morazan was President of the Federal Republic of Central America:

April 12, 1929 to June 25, 1829
September 16, 1830 to April 25, 1831
June 13, 1831 to January 26, 1832
June 2, 1832 to June 27, 1832
July 23, 1832 to February 16, 1833
March 11, 1834 to June 17, 1834
July 29, 1834 to February 2, 1835
February 2, 1835 to April 1835
June 4, 1835 to May 19, 1835
March 1836 to August 9, 1837
October 23, 1837 to February 3, 1838
April 12, 1838 to May 18, 1838
July 19, 1838 to October 14, 1838

Mr. Jose Maria Silva
He ruled as deputy October 14, 1834 to March 2, 1835 February 16, 1840 to April 5, 1840 (EL SALVADOR)

The lawyer Jose Maria Silva was born in San Miguel, about 1804 and died in that same city on October 16, 1876.

The parents of this remarkable Salvadoran people were accommodated. It is claimed that in the year 1827, law degree and who enjoyed a reputation for his ability and illustration. He was deputy to the State Legislature, 1828, of which he was secretary in 1829.

In May 1829 the trial request military prisoners collected as a result of the Capitulation of Mexicans, in the first phase of the American Civil War.

In June 1829 went to Guatemala, as Commissioner of the legislature, charged with P. Colom deliver personally to General Francisco Morazan, commander of the victorious revolutionary armies, the famous decree that the leader was able to establish new federal authorities.

Mr. Smith was Deputy to the Salvadoran legislature in 1834 and President of that Legislature in October 1834. Resignation as deputy ruled by the Supreme Commander to make a Honduran citizen elected Dionisio Herrera, accepted the appointment that he made the Assembly from October 14, 1834 to March 2, 1835 and ruled over as deputy chief of February 16 1840 to 5 April of that year, 1840. In that second period was the position that made him the General Morazan, as it invaded Guatemala, but the April 5, 1840, left the Supreme Power to follow the General Morazan, El Salvador as it leaves, embarking at the Port of Freedom in the brig "Izalco" along with many followers of General Morazan.

During his government, Mr. Silva ruled with honesty removed the embargo on goods from neighboring adversaries. Exercise judicial power and was President of the Constituent Assembly of 1839. Mr. Smith spent two years in Costa Rica and Panama, returning to the country in 1842. He returned to the country and as a calm and lived many years in the profession.

On January 9, 1850 he was appointed delegate from El Salvador to the National Convention was convened in order to reorganize the Central American Union, but declined this honor, several times, despite their resignations had to go to Leon (Nicaragua) , which established the Central Assembly, also Honduras, was named delegate to the Convention. On January 9, 1851 was forced to go to Chinandega, where I settle the Convention, he was appointed secretary.

In 1853 he was elected Senator, having been named the Congress appointed office on February 16, 1854. He devoted himself to jurisprudence, Mr. Silva to jurisprudence, was esteemed and recognized as one of the best jurisconsultores the country, was appointed by decree of June 22, 1854, a member of the committee responsible for drafting the Commercial Code, with corresponding procedural law.

Mr. Silva was re-elected, Senator for San Miguel, was voted president of his camera from 1857 to 1858. By Executive of February 4, 1858, was appointed to Mr. Silva, along with Dr. Justo Abaunza to integrate the Commission responsible for drafting the Civil Code and Penal reforms. In 1862 he became Mr. Jose Maria Silva to be elected senator and High-Elected Chair of the House. Upon completion of this period he retired to private life claiming illness.

In 1872, he published a pamphlet which I call "Memories to September 15", considered his political testament.

Licensed Norberto Ramirez
He ruled as a Senator: September 20, 1840 to January 7, 1841 (NICARAGUA)

Mr. Norberto Ramirez was born in Leon, Nicaragua in the late eighteenth century and died in that same city, July 11, 1856. He ruled the Republic of El Salvador as a Senator of the September 20, 1840 to January 7, 1841.

On September 20, 1840, an uprising broke out in the barracks in San Salvador against the government of Colonel Antonio José Cañas; uprising encouraged by the General Commander of the Army, General Francisco Malespín, because the colonel did not lend rods to be his instrument in the administration. He was deposed by Colonel Cañas and imposed as Head of State, Graduate Norberto Ramirez, for not having accepted the appointment as Head of State Mr. Jose Damian Villacorta.

In December 1840, a riot broke out in Santiago Nonualco Petronilo led by Castro, which was suppressed by the government. Although Mr. Ramirez ruled a few months, learned to balance their short period of Government, faced the difficult political situation at that time. Give the Supreme Command on January 7, 1840, to Mr. John Lindo. Mr. Norberto Ramirez, the father of Mrs. Mercedes Ramírez Melendez, mother of Don Carlos and Jorge Melendez, who were Presidents of the Republic of El Salvador. Mr. Ramirez was also President of the Republic of Honduras.

Licenciado Juan Lindo
President of the Republic of El Salvador: As Interim Head: January 7, 1841 to June 20, 1841 As Supreme Commander: June 28, 1841 to February 1, 1842 (HONDURAS)

Mr. Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya (Tegucigalpa, Honduras, May 16, 1790 - Thanks, Honduras, April 23, 1857) was a Honduran politician who was President of the Republic of El Salvador (1841-1842) and Honduras (1847-1852) and died in the town of Gracias, Honduras, April 23, 1853. Mr. Lindo was the Supreme Command of Colonel Antonio Cañas and named as Minister to General and Graduate Norberto Ramirez. He was born into a landowning family. In 1814, he earned his law degree from the University of San Carlos de Guatemala. After the independence of Central America, was Governor of the Province of Comayagua (1821). Juan Lindo was one of the initiators of the annexation of the Central American provinces to the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. Elected deputy to the Legislative Assembly of Honduras in 1826. In 1827 he supported the conservative José Justo Milla who overthrew the Head of State of Honduras, Dionisio de Herrera. He was deputy to the Constituent Assembly convened in June 1838 where he represented the interests of the Conservative Party. From his position in the Assembly, promoted the separation of Honduras from the Central American Federation in October 1838.

In 1840, he traveled to El Salvador, where with the support of General Francisco Malespín, was appointed Secretary of State October 1840 to January 1841 and subsequently elected Interim Head of State of El Salvador from January 7 to June 20, 1841 and State President of June 28, 1841 to 1 February 1842. During his government, El Salvador formally separated the Central American Federation and issued a decree founding the National University. In January 1841 is set to San Vicente, San Miguel, Sonsonate and San Salvador, together liquidation of the public debt, consisting of three members each. In February of that year decreed the Constituent Assembly declared El Salvador, Sovereign and Independent Republic and resuming national sovereignty. In the same month and year Head Mr. Lindo, decrees establishing schools in all villages and valleys of the Republic, who have a hundred and fifty inhabitants and a fine mayors with ten dollars if established and if you do not force children to attend . School teachers give their lessons in reading and writing of six to eight in the morning and 2:00 to 15:00. The rest of the day is for the child according to their age learn a trade, art or rural work.

On February 16, 1841 with full support of the army commander, General Francisco Malespín (despite the opposition of President Mr. Lindo) helps doctors request of Colonel Antonio José Cañas deputies and Narcisco Monterrey for the founding of the National University of El Salvador and the Colegio La Asunción. This decree gave it to the Constituent Assembly by the pressure of Gen. Francisco Malespín. In 1842, he returned to Honduras and settled in Comayagua. On February 12, 1847 he was elected constitutional president a position he held until February 4, 1848. This mandate created the State University of Honduras (now UNAH) and promulgated a new constitution. According to this, Lindo was elected for a further period ending February 1, 1852. In this second administration, Lindo signed an alliance with the Salvadoran President Doroteo Vasconcelos to declare war on the government of Guatemala, who presided Rafael Carrera, Allied troops invaded the territory of Guatemala, but were defeated by Race in the Battle of La Arada, 2 February 1851. Completed his term, handed the presidency to General José Trinidad Cabañas and retired from politics stablished in the city of Gracias, Lempira department in where he died.

Marin General Scholastic
He ruled as a Senator: 1 February to 12 April 1842 July 19 to September 26, 1842 (EL SALVADOR)

Scholastic Marin was a Salvadoran politician, who ruled the Republic of El Salvador as provisional president of the February 1 to April 12, 1842 and July 19 to September 26, 1842.

Born in San Vicente, and died November 11, 1846, near the river San Felipe, in acts of war against the government of Dr. Eugenio Aguilar. His brothers, Florencio who was shot at his ranch Sihuatepeque by the Indian Anastasio Aquino in February 1833. His sister Matilda who fell in love with the Indian Aquino. On 1 February 1842, the President of the State Senator, Marin Scholastic deleted for reasons of economy the Department. Peace and parties Olocuilta San Vicente, the same Opico was segregated and incorporated Cuscatlan San Salvador.

Scholastic Marin General delivers the supreme power to Juan José Guzmán.

On July 19, 1842 Marin General Scholastic received by the Government of Don Dionisio Villacorta. It was a period of political turmoil, not only in El Salvador but throughout Central America due to the presence of General Morazán as President of Costa Rica.

Don Dionisio Villacorta
He ruled as a Senator: June 30 to July 19, 1842 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in Zacatecoluca. He ruled as a Senator. This period of transition during which Dionisio Villacorta called elections for President and Vice Presidents of the Republic.

On July 19, 1842 gave the Supreme Command to General Scholastic Marin.





General Juan Jose Guzman and Bachelor Juan Jose Guzman was President of El Salvador from April 14, 1842 1 February 1844

Fermín Palacios General
He ruled as a Senator: 1 to February 7, 1844 As Senator: February 16 to April 25, 1845 As Senator: 1 to February 21, 1846 As a senator: 12 to July 21, 1846 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in San Salvador.
Don Fermín Palacios received the Supreme Command and Bachelor of General Juan José Guzmán.

His term was transient and reconciliation between the political forces of General Francisco Malespín and Bishop Jorge Ungo Viteri and conspiring to obtain power. During the 7 days there was a struggle in the Legislature, which ended dominating Gen. Malespín to occupy the executive branch. On February 7, 1844, Don Fermín Palacios received the Government of Colonel Eufracio Joaquin Guzman, February 16, 1845. On February 17, 1845 the Senate of the Republic of El Salvador supported the indictment against General Malespín and sends the goods to garnish Malespín Gral and his supporters and the government declared traitors to all the people who helpers.

On March 20, 1845 the Government of El Salvador purchase the schooner "The Salvadoran fast" weapon in the war and placed under the command of Don Juan Dheming. On April 25, 1845 gives the Government General Eufrasio Joaquin Guzman. For the third time Don Fermín Palacios received the Supreme Command on 1 February 1846 General Joaquin Guzman Eufrasio. Its period of transition was practiced as the elections for President of the Republic. On February 21, 1846 delivered the 1st Judicial President-elect Dr. Eugenio Aguilar.

Don Fermín Palacios 4th time comes for the Presidency, receiving the Government on July 12, 1846 for deposit to make him President Dr. Aguilar. His term was short lived and the next day after assuming power, decreed a state of siege, forced by circumstances more and more serious due to the political situation caused by Bishop Jorge Viteri and Ungo. His conciliatory spirit failed to contain the political ambitions of the bishop. On July 21, 1846 again gave the Supreme Power to the President Dr. Eugenio Aguilar.

General Francisco Malespín
President of the Republic of El Salvador: 7 febrero al May 9, 1844 June 16 to October 25, 1844 (EL SALVADOR)

General Malespín, was born in Izalco, the September 28, 1866 and was assassinated in the town of San Fernando, dept. Chalatenango on November 25, 1846, when commanded to invade the Republic in order to occupy the executive branch.

His parents were: Don Juan and Doña Luisa Malespín Herrera and Rodriguez who are domiciled in San Salvador in 1824. On February 7, 1844 he was elected President of the Republic of El Salvador with the help of the influence of Bishop Jorge Viteri and Ungo, for Gen. his godson was Malespín.

March 1844 enacts the budget expenditure of the nation in the sum of 118,713 pesos. On April 29, 1844 President General Malespin to combat revolution, decreed that all inhabitants of El Salvador, from age 16 to 40 should be submitted to take up arms, within 30 days.

On May 9, 1844 the gral. Francisco Malespín deposited command Eufrasio Supreme Gen. Guzman and organized army. Gen. Guzman was the vice president. The 2nd period of General Malespín began June 16, 1844. During his attempts he was beset by revolutionaries.

The President Gen. Malespín delivery Supreme command Gen. Joaquín Guzmán Eufracio Army commander and his brother Calixto Malespín and put in command of troops who would fight the Government of Nicaragua. Gen. Malespín has all power and government power. On February 15, 1845 returning victorious campaign in Nicaragua, known as the Army itself and the legislature annulled the election of President Gen. Malespín made and was replaced by Vice President Joaquín Guzmán Eufrasio.

On February 23, 1845 Bishop Dr. Jorge Viteri and Ungo, thunders higher in the Cathedral of San Salvador, against Gen. Francisco Malespín by Peter Crespin fusilación the priest and the theft of sacred objects of the church in León , Nicaragua. In March 1845 the President of Honduras, Mr. Coronado Chavez decrees provide protection and asylum to Gen. Francisco Malespín. Malespín fled to Honduras where he received protection Coronado Honduran President Chavez.

In November 1846, attempted to invade El Salvador, to regain the presidency but when going to San Salvador, Malespín was murdered in the town of San Fernando, Chalatenango department.

General Joaquín Guzmán Eufrasio
Vice ruled: October 25, 1844 to February 16, 1845 Vice ruled: April 25, 1845 to February 1, 1846 Vice ruled: January 19 February 15, 1859 (COSTA RICA)

General Eufrasio Joaquin Guzman, was born in Carthage, Republic of Costa Rica. He was the father of Doña Adelaida Barrios Guzman, wife of Captain Gerardo Barrios. He received the power of General Francisco Malespín the May 9, 1844. His transition period was. He asked the Assembly to decree the necessary resources to defend the state. On June 16, 1844 gives the Government General Francisco Malespín. For the second time the command receives Supreme General.




Dr. Eugenio Aguilar
He ruled as president-elect: February 21 to July 12, 1846 As President July 21, 1846 to February 1, 1848 (EL SALVADOR)

Eugenio Aguilar was a Salvadoran politician and physician. Born in Santiago Nonualco the November 15, 1804, and died in San Salvador on April 23, 1879. Posthumous son of Jose Antonio Aguilar and Doña Juana Gonzalez and Batres.

On April 8, he married Dona Dolores Padilla Castillo. In 1839 he was Mayor of San Salvador and the following year was Army Staff Surgeon, Professor very distinguished, in 1844 Rector of the Universidad Nacional. He received the supreme power February 21, 1846 by Senator Don Fermín Palacios. On July 12, 1846 against the opposition of military commanders in the Supreme Command deposited Senator Don Fermín Palacios.

On 21 July the same year of 1846 by the excitability of the Municipality of San Salvador and other authorities and neighbors assumed the supreme power that gives Palacios Fermin The July 29, 1846 by Executive Decree prohibits the Bishop Vitei and return Ungo the country, declaring him expelled from the territory of El Salvador, for complicity in the riots in the capital. He handed over power on February 1, 1848 to Thomas Medina.

Don Tomas Medina
He ruled as a Senator: 1 to February 3, 1848 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in Santa Ana in June 1803 and died of a throat condition, at ten in the evening of February 13, 1884, at 81 years old. His parents were Don Jose Bernardo Medina and Juana Menéndez (Spanish). In his youth he was devoted to trade. Was 30 years old when he married Gertrudis Rodriguez, March 9, 1831.

On February 1, 1848, was the Supreme Power of Dr. Eugenio Aguilar and 3 the same year gave it to Vice-President Felix Quiroz. In 1854 he accepted the post of Governor of Sonsonate performance for 8 months and resigned that position Teodoro Moreno recommended replacing it.

In January 1859 he attended the Chamber of Deputies representing the department of Santa Ana, which was separated from Sonsonate. In January 1860, took a seat in the Senate, elected by the Senate Metapán circle and Santa Ana until its dissolution by the President Duenas in 1863.

Mr. Medina had come to make a fortune. In 1833 bought the mill in 1836 Apanteos and the haciendas of San Juan del Campo and San Isidro, which cost eighty thousand dollars.

Don Doroteo Vasconcelos
He ruled as president: February 7, 1848 to January 26, 1850 As President February 4, 1850 to January 12, 1851 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in Sensuntepeque, the February 6, 1803, and died in St. Vincent in March 1883. His parents were Don Manuel de Jesus Iraheta Vasconcelos and Gertrudis Valley. On March 5, 1828, when civil war ripped through the nation Vasconcelos became Minister General and Deputy and Chairman of the Federal Congress, 1830.

Fiscal War was in 1832 and the political chief of the Guatemalan province of Sacatepequez. The following year he returned to El Salvador where he had considerable interest and then appointed political chief in 1836. Vasconcelos was a Liberal Unionist and accompany the president convinced Morazán to exile in Panama in 1840, remaining with him until the tragic end of Morazan. Then he embarked for Europe, where he remained three years, returning to the country in late 1845.

On April 29, 1840 came to Puerto Caldera, where he landed, remaining until the tragic death of General Morazan. Then he embarked for Europe, where he stayed 3 years making the country in late 1845.

On December 4, 1847 took effect, having the Presidential elections were won by Mr. Vasconcelos for the biennium 1848-1849. At the end of his term leaves the power to Ramon Rodriguez, who returns four days later for a further period of two years. During his government, repatriated from Costa Rica, the remains of General Morazan, and was buried with state honors in the cemetery of San Salvador. Vasconcelos gave asylum to the Guatemalan liberals who had been exiled by the conservative government of Rafael Carrera, which led to hostilities between El Salvador and Guatemala. In 1851, the governments of El Salvador and Honduras signed an alliance against Carrera, the allied army invaded Guatemala but was defeated at the battle of La Arada (2 February 1851). After the military defeat, President Vasconcelos resigned and retired from politics.

Don Ramon Rodriguez
He ruled as a Senator: January 26 to February 1, 1850 (EL SALVADOR)

Born in San Vicente. He received the Higher Power Don Ramon Rodriguez, January 26, 1850, for deposit to make him President Don Doroteo Vasconcelos, to disprove the saying of various forms, that their presence in power though, or could seize the deliberations of the Representatives.

On the same day the Legislative Chambers said Don Doroteo reelected President for the period 1850-1851 Vasconcelos, and as vice-president, appointed a second time by chance, the lawyer Felix Quiroz opposed the reelection of Deputies General Nicolas Angulo, Mr. Francisco Dueñas, Cayetano Bosque, Manuel Rafael Reyes, Mr. Francisco Arbizú, Tomas Medina, Fermín Palacios, José María San Martín, Manuel Andrade and Miguel Callejas. The protest was based on several deputies were government employees, whom the law did not allow them to be appointed to such positions.

The camera was installed PROVISIONS violating strict law, without waiting for the meeting of deputies who had not yet arrived, the same day of installation. As the deputies who protested were not let out of the enclosure could not make a public protest.

January 30, 1850 in the Legislative Chambers elected and appointed to exercise the supreme power, this year, in the cases determined by law and by the order of their nominations to the Senators Ramon Rodriguez, Francisco Castro Miguel Santin and Inns.

Don Ramon Rodriguez gave the supreme power February 1, 1850 to Mr. Felix Quiroz.

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