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History of El Salvador, Volumes I and II, Ministry of Education. 1994

The root of the pre-Hispanic Mayan-Salvadorians is Pipil who populated the land of Cuscatlan (El Salvador) more than 1200 years before Christ. This time its well-organized urban settlements were economically and politically. Their progress is primarily reflected in the famous codex known as the Popol Vuh, a book on the historical development of mankind and the origin of the Mayan peoples. The diligent reader may find in the Popol Vuh the vast philosophical and scientific knowledge developed in that time, comparable with the level of development achieved by China cultures, Babylonian and Egyptian, that knowledge has been wisely passed on to future generations through rituals and religious symbols.

Since that time, the lands that today make El Salvador is characterized by being the focal point for trade and culture of peoples of northern and southern Mesoamerica. These characteristics are evidenced by the number of traces of other cultures that have been found in various archaeological sites explored. Since the arrival of Europeans is a fundamental change in the future of Cuscatlán and creating a new cultural mix.

El Salvador had its first encounter with the Spaniards in the year 1524, when Pedro de Alvarado led the conquest of the lands south of Mexico to colonize. Alvarado reached through Cuscatlán Ahuachapán department, where many warriors clashed Pipil showed strong resistance to the Spanish army.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century founded the first Spanish village in the territory of El Salvador: The Villas of San Salvador and San Miguel, with the characteristics of European cities. Most native people came to serve the interests of the colonizers, breaking the trade structure intercultural argued that the Maya-Pipil in the region, becoming the only farmers to supply the needs of the Spanish metropolis.

With the prosperity of the anil, increased interference by the colonial authorities in local decisions, with the changes that take shape in the wake of the Bourbon reforms, created the conditions that lead to independence movements in Central America to achieve the emancipation of the Spanish colony on September 15, 1821, which began its independent life of El Salvador. In the second half of the nineteenth century there were great liberal reforms that gave new political and economic to the Republic, to expand across Central America, reviving the region develops.

During S. XX dominated the economy based on agricultural production based mainly on coffee, cotton and shrimp. There were efforts to develop an economy of import substitution through the integration and diversification of agricultural production. Until late’70s, El Salvador was known as the Japan of Central America.

Due to armed conflict that developed in the 80s, the country lowers its dynamism demonstrated in past decades. However, since the Peace Accords signed in 1992, began a new phase of political, social and economic democracy based on the example that has been globally. The new democratic principles, the spirit of the Salvadoran business, the desire to overcome and be back at the level of socioeconomic development, has led the nation has recovered in recent years of economic stagnation, gaining international recognition that they constitute leader of the region to promote changes both in favor of development, as an engine of economic integration in Central America. In the twenty-first century, takes up his role hold since the twelfth century BC, the center of cultural convergence and regional trade linking North and South America in a scheme of free trade and competitive.


El Salvador suffered an armed conflict between 1980 and 1992. To end this situation, we developed a process of negotiation between the conflicting parties, which were, on the one hand the Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation (FMLN) and the other by the Government, chaired by President Alfredo Cristiani. The negotiation process ended with the signing of the Peace Accords on January 16, 1992 at the Castle of Chapultepec, Mexico, D. F.

The process of negotiation and signing of agreements, with the support and the support of the United Nations (UN) and the International Community, through the Friends group led by Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Spain and United States, but especially with the strong conviction of Salvadorans to achieve peace.

So that the peace agreements, as well as being the beginning of a new era in the history of El Salvador, are a reflection of the pacifist spirit of the Salvadorans and the interest of generating economic development and prosperity in an atmosphere of harmony and stability policy.

With the peace accords began a broad process of democratization of the country and creating a new institutional framework, such as a National Civil Police and respectful service to the public, an Army with a new doctrine based on the full subordination to civilian authority and respect for human rights was created for the Defense of Human Rights, and the judicial system was reformed to ensure its adequacy and independence.

In the decade that has elapsed since that important date January 16, 1992 until this year 2002, the main feature of the country and its people have always been further ahead, building a better future for coming generations.

The achievement of peace, and reconstruction and the generation of economic development, have won major awards in El Salvador in the world, in many cases serve as examples for other countries that have or are suffering from civil wars.

This decade has not been without its drawbacks and one of the key has been the insecurity, manifested at times by high crime rates. However, the Government and its people, in addition to recognizing these problems, which are to some extent in normal processes of post conflict, have launched serious efforts to minimize the levels of crime.

These efforts deserve special mention the work of the National Civil Police, was able to reduce almost to a minimum rate of kidnappings, strongly attacking the drug trafficking and other illicit activities of organized crime both as common crime.

The Government believes that in addition to addressing the problem severely delinquent must attack the root causes that generate it, is therefore working actively in a program to generate more and better employment opportunities for the population, where becomes significant foreign investment.


The country’s foreign policy seeks among other things, help to improve our participation in the international arena through an active presence in the political, economic and social development, either at the bilateral and multilateral. In that sense, it seeks to diversify and deepen the framework for relations with the various international actors to ensure an adequate insertion in a globalized world.

Based on the above, foreign policy works to achieve a reflection and active promotion of the country’s image as an attractive economic environment for investment and business, helping to attract investment, promote Salvadoran exports and supply assists in the negotiation of agreements and instruments to improve the overall competitive position of the country, generating more and better opportunities to access international markets and to strengthen national capacity to attract foreign investment.

In that sense, the priorities for action identified by the Salvadoran foreign policy are:

  • * El Salvador position to achieve at international level.
  • * Help generate income and employment opportunities, attracting investments and promoting exports.
  • * Managing international cooperation.
  • * Strengthen care and linking Salvadorans abroad.
  • * Defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity through diplomacy.

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